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Mod 6 Ch 26

Eye, Ear, and other senses

orbit cavity in skull where the eyeball is housed
Outer Layer of the eye sclera, cornea (window), limbus
sclera outer layer, white of the eye, light is unable to penetrate
cornea outer layer, "window" of the eye, allows light to enter
limbus outer layer, corneal-scleral junction
Middle Layer of the eye choroid, iris, lens, pupil ("hole" in center of iris)
choroid middle layer of the eye, lines the sclera, absorbs extra light entering the eye
iris middle layer of the eye, contains the eye color (or pigment), has a "hole" in the center called the pupil
lens middle layer of the eye, colorless structure behind the iris, sharpens the focus of light rays into the retina
Inner Layer of the eye retina, optic nerve
retina inner layer of the eye, contains photosensitive cells called rods and cones that translate light rays into nerve impulses that are translated to the brain
rods photosensitive cells in retina that react to dim light and are used in night vision
cones photosensitive cells in the retina that react to bright light and color
optic nerve inner layer of the eye, enters at the optic disc and carries incoming information from the eye to the brain
palpebrae eyelids
conjunctiva mucous membrane that lines the underside of eyelids and anterior of eyeball
lacrimal canaliculi ducts (2) at the corner of each eye which collect and drain tears into the lacrimal sac.
lacrimal sac area where tears are collected and drain into nasolacrimal duct
astigmatism condition caused by irregularity in the curvature of the cornea (more football-shaped than round)
strabismus crossed eyes or wall eyes
Refraction problems Inability to focus correctly. Include myopia (near-sighted), hyperopia (far-sighted) and presbyopia (eye changes with age)
blepharoptosis droopy eyelid
blepharitis inflammation of the eyelids
conjunctivitis AKA pinkeye, highly contagious
hordeolums AKA sties, accompany blocked or infected eyelids or glands, frequently contagious
Age-related eye disorders cataracts, retinal detachment, macular degeneration
cataract clouding or opacity of the lens
retinal detachment retina separates from the choroid layer
macular degeneration deterioration of the macula (central portion of the retina), incurable, leading cause of blindness in people 55+
amblyopia AKA lazy eye, the nerve pathway from the eye to the brain doesn't properly develop.
corneal abrasion scratch or lesion on the cornea
glaucoma Increased IOP caused by build-up of fluid (aqueous humor), can lead to damage of the optic nerve and blindness.
nystagmus involuntary, repetitive rhythmic eye movements
retinopathy nerve damage caused by recurring or acute damage (diabetic retinopathy)
Outer Ear Pinna, auditory meatus, tympanic membrane, fundus
pinna AKA auricle, visual portion of the outside of ear
auditory meatus auditory canal, secretes cerumen (earwax)
tympanic membrane AKA ear drum, separates the outer ear from the middle ear and transmits sound vibrations into the middle ear
fundus floor of the tympanic cavity
Middle Ear Contains eustachian tube and 3 small bones or ossicles: malleus, incus, and stapes. The middle ear transmits sound vibrations, equalizes pressure, and protects from loud noises.
eustachian tube auditory tube that extends 3-4 cm to nasopharynx
three small bones (ossicles) of middle ear malleus, incus, stapes
Inner Ear Contains maze of canals called labyrinth, cochlea "organ of hearing", and vestibule
cochlea "organ of hearing", bony spiral structure that looks like snail's shell
vestibule fundus of the internal auditory meatus (floor of the internal ear canal) which controls the sense of balance.
audiology study of hearing disorders including loss
2 types of hearing loss conductive and sensorineural
conductive hearing loss temporary condition in which sound is not conducted efficiently through the auditory canal to the eardrum and middle ear. Can be caused by obstruction, impacted wax, or allergies.
sensorineural hearing loss permanent hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea or nerve pathways from inner ear to brain.
Common Outer Ear disorders Impacted cerumen and ruptured tympanic membrane
impacted cerumen earwax that has accumulated and hardened to the point of obstructing the auditory canal
ruptured tympanic membrane ripping or tearing caused by objects or unequal air pressure
Common Middle Ear disorders Otitis media and otosclerosis
Otitis media AKA middle ear infection caused by viral and bacterial infections
otosclerosis abnormal tissue growth around the stapes, usually hereditary
Common Inner Ear disorders Tinnitus, Meniere's disease, and presbycusis
Tinnitus ringing or roaring in one or both ears, usually symptom associated with many forms of hearing loss
Meniere's disease A disease that affects a person's balance and hearing due to changes in fluid volume in labyrinth of the inner ear.
presbycusis hearing loss associated with aging to due gradual deterioration of the sensory receptors in older adults.
Nose Primary organ for sense of smell, contains olfactory cells
olfactory cells found in nasal cavity that respond to changes in odor and chemical concentrations
gustatory cells found in taste buds on tongue, roof of mouth, and throat that serve as taste receptors
4 types of taste cells sweet, sour, salty, and bitter
sense of touch oldest and most primitive sense that originates in the dermis
Created by: vanstellee



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