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WVSOM -- Medical Neuroscience -- Diencephalon

Where is the diencephalon located? rostral to the brainstem
What are the subdivisions of the diencephalon? epithalmus, subthalmus, hypothalamus, thalamus and the third ventricle
What are the five major divisions of the brain? Telencephalon, diencephalon, mesencephalon, metencephalon and myelencephalon
What is bound to the diencephalon laterally? posterior limb of the internal capsule
What separates the diencephalon into two symmetrical halves? third ventricle
What is the interthalamic adhesion? present in 75% of human brains. Represents an area of thalamic continuity on the medial side of the thalami
What is the epithalamus? contains the pineal gland
What is the pineal gland? small, cone-shaped body, attached to the roof of the third ventricle near the posterior commissure. Contains glia cells and unique secretory cells known as pinealocytes
What is the function of the pineal gland? Circadian rhythmicity, spontaneous locomotor activity and feeding/drinking patterns.
What do pinealocytes secrete? malatonin
What do tumors of the pineal gland result in? onset of pubertal changes (precocious puberty)
How long does it take for the pineal gland to calcify? 20 years. After calcification, it may serve as a marker for midline structures on a radiographs
Where is the subthalamus located? just rostral to the midbrain
What structures are in the hypothalamus? (6) mammillary bodies, tuber cinereum, infundibulum, neurohypophysis, optic chiasm, fornix many other hypothalmamic nuclei
What separates the thalami? the third ventricle
What separates the thalamus from the hypothalamus? hypothalamic sulcus, a shallow groove on the ventricular surface
What is a major source of afferent fibers to the cortex? The thalamus
How does the thalamus communicate with the cortex? thalamic radiations mainly from regions of the lateral thalamus to the internal capsule and then to the cortex
What is the thalamus a relay center for? cerebellum and basal ganglia
How many thalamic nuclei are there? over 30
How are thalamic nuclei divided up? into groups by a band of white matter called the internal medullary lamina
What does the posterior region of the thalamus contain? pulvinar, lateral geniculate body and medial geniculate body
What is the reticular thalamic nucleus? forms a thing shell on the lateral portion of the thalamus. It is unique because it has no extra-thalamic projections.
Which thalamic nucleus is purely GABAergic? reticular thalamic nucleus
What is the thalamocortical circuit? It is a circuit that runs from the thalamus to the cerebral cortex. Nearby points in the thalamus project to nearby points in the cortex. The thalamocortical projection is excitatory (glutamatergic) and is reciprocated by a corticothalamic projection
What inhibits the Thalamocortical circuit? TRN neuron with GABA
What does the Thalamocortical relay and corticothalamic neuron secrete? glutamate
What does the thalmaci nuclei do? helps integrate, correlate and relay information and is involved in certain reflexes as well as regulating states of consciousness.
What maintains consciousness, alertness and attention? thalamus
What information does the thalamic nuclei help integrate, correlate and relay information for? sensory, motor, consciousness, limbic and visual systems
What is the one sensory inpulse that the thalamus is NOT a synaptic point for? olfactory signals
What happens in a prefrontal lobotomy? The reciprocal connections between the dorsomedial nucleus of the thalamus and the frontal lobes is interrupted.
What is the hypothalamus a part of? the wall for the third ventricle
Where is the hypothalamus located? ventral to the hypothalamic suclcus
What is the anterior boundry of the hypothalamus? lamina terminalis
What is the superior border of the hypothalamus? hypothalamic sulcus
What is the inferior border of the hypothalamus? optic chiasm and tracts
What is the posterior border of the hypothalamus? posterior edge of mammillary bodies
What is the tuber cinereum? the inferior border of the hypothalamus between optic chiasm and mammillary bodies
What does the hypothalamus regulate? heartrate, blood pressure, water metabolism, general metabolism, sexual behavior, temperature, GI, etc
What does the hypothalamus modulate? autonomic responses
What does the hypothalamus elaborate on? emotional responses such as aggression, anger, rage and placidity
What are the two afferent connections of input to the hypothalamus? forebrain and brainstem/spinal cord
What does the forebrain send to the hypothalamus? afferents from the limbic system, retina and other areas. Also associated with hippocampus to hypothalamus via fornix and amygdale to hypothalamus via stria terminalis
What signals are sent to the hypothalamus from the brainstem/spinal cord? sensory input from a variety of areas/nuclei – reaches hypothalamus via dorsal longitudinal fasciculus
Where does the hypothalamic send its efferent signals? same place it received its input EXCEPT mammillary bodies to thalamus via mammillothalamic tract. Also sends efferents to the pituitary
How is the hypothalamus connected to the pituitary gland? Neurohypophysis and adenohypophysis
What is the hypophysis? pituitary gland
How is the hypothalamus connected to the neurohypophysis? neural pathways
How is the hypothalamus connected to the adenohypophysis? via blood vessels known as hypophyseal portal vessels
What are hypophyseal portal vessels? blood vessels that connect the hypothalamus to the hypophysis
What are the two large nuclei that send their axons into the neurohypophysis for release into general circulation? supraoptic nucleus (SON) and the paraventricular nucleus (PVN)
What are the 3 parts of the adenohypophysis? pars tuberalis, pars intermedia and pars distalis
What is the median eminence? ventral portion of hypothalamus where hypothalamic axons converge to secrete releasing/inhibiting hormones which act on cells in pars distalis as signals to release/store their hormones
What does the anterior hypothalamus do in regards to temperature regulation? detects INCREASES in blood temperature and activates cutaneous vasodilatation and sweating to lower temperature.
What does the posterior hypothalamus do in regards to temperature regulation? detects DECREASES in blood temperature and activates cutaneous vasoconstriction and shivering to raise temperature.
What is the feeding center of the brain? lateral hypothalamus
What does the lateral hypothalamus express? orexins
What are orexins? involved in satiety setpoints
What is the satiety center of the brain? ventromedial hypothalamus
Created by: tjamrose