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WC II Baxa ch.11

1300-1500A.D. Western Civ II with Baxa pages 314-325, people, dates, & key terms

The Late Middle Ages 1300 -1500 AD 1300-1500AD
Avignon -still was part of the HOly ROman Empire, where the Popes moved to after the attempted kidnapping on Pope Boniface VIII. in southern France. 1309
Pope Boniface VIII King Philip IV tried to kidnap and condemn for heresy, b/c he challenged authority of king in his own country. (1294-1303)
Pope Clement V successor of Boniface. -stayed N. of Alps in hopes of= +ending war -B- France & England. + protecting/preserving Templars, + preventing posthumous heresy trial of Pope Boniface VIII (1305-1314)
King Philip IV -king of France, -tried to kidnap Pope Boniface VIII -(1285-1314),
Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy when popes resided outside of Italy, begun when Pope Clement moved to Avignon. unholy and wordly richness and spoiledness Avigonese papacy experienced (1309-1378)
Pope John XXII Clement's successor. (r. 1316-1334)
St, Catherine of Siena & St. Bridget of Sweeden left their homes & encourged Popes to return to Rome (1347-1480) & (1303-1373)
Pope Gregory XI +in 1377 returned to Rome, + (r. 1370-1378),
Pope Gregory XI returned to Rome End of Babylonian Captivity 1377
Clement V moves Papal court to Avignon, beginning Babylonian Captivity 1309
Pope Urban VI violent, intemperate, & eager to reduce privileges of the clerical hierarchy. French cardinals questioned the legitimacy of his election. (r. 1378-1389)
Great Schism a period about 40 years when no one knew who was the real pope. (1378)
counciliarists church councils who decided on church matters, including who should be pope ~1400 (give or take 15-20 yrs)
Council in Pisa cardinals met and deposed both Urban VI and Clement VII, elected new pope= John XXIII 1410 AD
Pope Clement VII second Pope elected by Cardinals (french bishop)... (r.1378-1394)
Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund forced the third pope candidate ( Pope John XXIII) to call Council of Constance, hoped to settle argument in Bohemia between Czech and German peoples. Pressured Pope John XXIII into calling Council of Constance. (r. 1411-1415)
Pope John XXIII called Council of Constance under pressure of Holy Emeror Sigismund, deposed (1410-1415)
Council of Constance called by Pope John XXIII under the pressure of Holy Roman emperor Sigismund. hopes to settle arguements between Czech and Germans, but executed Czech leader, Jan Hus... hurting more than solving. (1414-1418)
Jan Hus preacher @ Bethlehem Chapel in Prague, from 1402, and rector at University. criticized Church hierarchy, that was mostly German. offered a safe pass to the Council of Constance, when refused to renounce his beliefs, he was burnt at stake. (ca. 1370-1415)
John Wyclif Oxford theologian, taught 1370's. criticized clergy & abuses o the church hierarchy. church= divine institution + earthly gathering o individuals. Sponsored 1rst translation o Bible n2 English. followers ="Lollards". emphaszd Bible + piety, + girls preach (1329-1387)
Bohemia capital = Prague, Czech speaking, seat of Luxemburg dynasty, of German emperors, 1rst German University in their/ slavic lands. ~1410-1437?
Pope Gregory XII Roman pope, resigned (r. 1406-1415)
Pope Benedict III Avignon Pope, deposed (r. 1394-1417)
Pope Martin V elected after the other three popes who were in contention. (r.1417-1431)
Council of Basel a second reform council (1431-1449)
Thomas Wolsey of England a cardinal-protector. supporter of King Henry VII, and chancellor of England under Henry VIII (ca. 1470-1530)
Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges French clergy abolished papal rights to annates , limited appeals to the papal courts, & reduced papal rights to appoint clergy within France w/o approval of clergy and crown 1438
Pope Sixtus IV Issued a Bull that allowed Ferdinand of Arganon, & Isabelle of Castile (Spain)... to institute Spanish Inquisition (church court) under their auspices (r. 1471-1484)
King Philip IV King of France (r. 1285-1314)
King Edward II king of England. weak and gullible (1307-1327)
King Edward II deposed led by his wife Queen Isabella and a coalition of barons 1327
reform ordinances passed by barons passed limiting the king's right to -wage war, -leave the realm, -grant lands or castles, & appoint chief justices or chancellors w/o approval of Parliament. taxes were to go to public Exchequer rather than the king's private treasury 1311
JPs resident justices of the peace in England 1300's
barons titled lords of England 1300's
Queen Isabella led the group that deposed King Edward II, her husband. her son became the next king lived ~1327
King Edward III ruled after his father was deposed. Queen Isabella & King Edward II's son. later formally claimed the title "king of france" that began the 100s' years war (r. 1327-1377)
Capetians line French royal family beginning with Hugh Capet- Charles IV (987-1328 AD)
King Philip of Valois / King Philip VI King of France, elected after Capetian line ended. cousin of King Charles IV. choosen over King Edward III of France (r. 1328-1350
King Charles IV last French king in the Capetian line 1322-1328
Hundred Years' war pretty much began with this event Edward III of England proclaimed himself "king of France" 1340
Hundred Years' War series of conflicts fought over English claims whithin the French monarchy. It ended with nearly complete expulsion of the English from the French lands. 1337-1453
Stage 1 of the 100 years' war this stage was classified by qick English assults and victories. Gunpowder arrived. both the longbow and cannon emerged as well. 1337-1360
stage 2 of the 100 years' war stage: French forces responded more cautiously 2 English tactics & began regaining their lost territory. French Rebellion= Etienne Marcel, & England rebellion= Peasants' Revolt. Wat Tyler killed by Richard II, who abdicated,-> Henry IV on English throne. 1360-1396
Etienne Marcel director of the merchants of Paris. mobilized French protest 2 reduce power of aristocrats and nobles. failed, too radical. 1356
Peasants' Revolt / "Rising of __(date)__" english rebellion: due to plague causing unrest. taxes for war, mostly from South-East England (Kent & Essex). Wat Tyler led rebellion. murdered by king Ricard II. 1381
Wat Tyler led armies of Peasant Revolt to London, murdered by Richard II June, 1381
Richard II King of England, chose peers from all classes. increased tension. captured and forced to abdicate. followed by King Henry III. (r. 1377-1399)
King Henry IV took English crown after the abdication of Richard II. 1rst ruler from the House of Lancaster. (r. 1399-1413)
Stage 3 of the 100 years' war stage of the 100 years' war: Charles VI goes insane. King Henry V still claimed rule to French throne, battle @ Agincourt, Kings Henry V & Charles VI die, Henry VI becomes heir to both thrones (1396-1422)
Charles VI French king who went insane during 100 years' war (r. 1380-1422)
King Henry V English king, who during 100 years' war, still claimed rule of the French throne. led English into battle @ Agincourt (r. 1413 - 1422)
Treaty of Troyes King Henry VI will be crowned king of both French & English thrones. Charles VII considered Illegitimate... 1420
Queen Catherine daughter of French King, Charles VI, married Henry V of England. had Henry VI, who was supposed to be king of both England and France. helped r. ~ 1420
Henry VI son of French Catherine & English Henry V, declared legitimate heir to both English and French thrones. (r. 1422-1461)
Stage 4 of the 100 years' war French Reconquest: Joan of Arc, Charles VII regains French Crown (1422-1453)AD
Charles VII in Treaty of Troyes, declared illegitimate son of Charles VI, and disinherited. but then with the help of Joan of Ark, regains french throne. (r. 1422-1461)
Joan of Arc St. in catholic church. Helped Charles VII regain the French Crown. burned by english, after being condemned to be a heretic for claiming the saints spoke french, that God was on France's side & her clothes d. 1431
Battle at Castillon-sur-Dordogne last battle of the 100 years' war... French won. No treaty, just consensus 1453 AD
War's effect on Europe more violence, political, economic, & social turmoil. aftermath of 100 years' war
Italian City-States social classes 3 major social groups: -old urban nobility, -merchant families, modest artisans & merchants, "popolo" 13 & 1400's (italy)
Created by: ljdaniel89