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Civics & ESOL Review

100 cards that will help with understanding the C&E SOL

What are the 5 fundamental political principles of government? Consent of the Governed Limited government Democracy Rule of Law Representative gorvernment
What does “consent of the governed” mean? People are the source of power
What does “limited government” mean? The government does not hold all power and is directed by the people
What does “democracy” mean? People rule over the government
What does “representative government” mean? The governed and the governors are bound by law
What does “rule of law” mean? The people elect public officeholders to make laws and conduct government on their behalf
Which early American document guaranteed the rights of Englishmen to colonists? Charters of the Virginia Company of London
What document was written by George Mason and served as a model/example for the U.S. Bill of Rights? Virginia Declaration of Rights
What document by Thomas Jefferson and served as a model for the First Amendment’s freedom of religion? VA Statute for Religious Freedom
Why is the Declaration of Independence important? It states the grievances against the King, affirmed unalienable rights, and declared the colonists' independence.
What was the first plan of government for the United States and why did it fail? The Articles of Confederation didn't give the congress and national gov't enough powers.
What is the Preamble and what does it do? The preambles is the introduction to the U.S. Constitution and it states the goals that the governments must aim for.
What is the written plan of government for the United States? The United States Constitution
What is federalism? The division of power between state and federal governments.
What are the powers set aside for the states called? Reserved Powers
What happens if a U.S. law conflicts with a state law? Federal law overthrows local or state law when they are in conflict.
What are implied powers? Powers necessary to carry out expressed powers.
What are powers the federal or state governments may NOT have? Denied Powers
What are powers given specifically to Congress in the Constitution called? implied powers
What are the 3 levels of federal courts? District Courts Courts of Appeals The U.S. Supreme Court
What is the process for bringing a civil and criminal case to trial? 1. Arrested with probable cause 2. Committed to jail or put on bail 3. Arraignment 4. Trial date is decided
What group makes laws for Virginia? Virginia General Assembly
What is the lawmaking process? How does a bill become a law? 1. Introduce the bill 2. Working in committees 3. The bill is debated on each floor of the house 4.Voting on bill in each house 5. The president signs the bill into law
What is a veto? A constitutional right that allows reject or disagreement
What is the role of a lobbyist? A person who is paid to influence a legislature to introduce or go against a bill.
What does the executive branch include? Presidential powers with key role in the policy-making process.
What is due process and where is it mentioned in the U.S. Constitution? 5th and 14th amendment
What is the legislative branch of the local government? Board of Supervisors
What positions does the VA Constitution require local governments to elect? School Board Town Council City Council
What is the role of the media in elections? It helps communicate and inform the public 1. Identifying candidates and selected issues 2. Writing editorials, creating political cartoons, and publishing op-eds 3. Broadcasting POVs
What are the primary responsibilities of the national government versus the state? National: Conduct foreign policy, regulates commerce, provides for common defense State: Promotes public health, safety and welfare
Describe the national legislative branch. - bicameral (2 houses) -Makes laws -Approves annual budget - confirms presidential appointments - Raises revenue and taxes -regulates interstate and foreign trade Declares war
How does the executive branch influence policymaking? -by appealing directly to the public -by approving or vetoing legislation - by appointing officials who carry out laws
What is judicial review? The power to check on the legislative and executive branches
Which Supreme Court case established the idea of judicial review? Marbury vs. Madison
Describe the system of checks and balances. Give examples. Each of the branches is limited by the other two. - The congress checks the president when legislatures override presidential vetoes - The Supreme Court has judicial review
What are the qualifications to vote? Citizen of the US Resident of Virginia and precinct 18 years of age
What factors determine who is more likely to vote? Income Education
What are PACs and what do they do? (Political Action Committees) Organization that collects and contributes money to party groups
What are the functions of political parties? Recruiting and nominating candidates Educating the electorate about campaign issues Helping candidates win elections Monitoring actions of officeholders
How do third parties differ from the major parties? 3rd parties concentrate on a certain issue
What are the major political parties and how are they different from each other? Democratic and Republican They both have different views
How has the high cost of getting elected changed campaigning for public office? Has led efforts to reform campaign finance laws
explain how the electoral college works. A slate of electors that are elected by each state that meet up and decide the President and Vice President.
What are magistrates? Magistrates issue search warrants, subpoenas, arrest warrants, and summons and set bail.
What is the difference between original and appellate jurisdiction? Original jurisdiction gives the advantage of being the first to open and see a case. Appellate jurisdiction is reviewing one.
Who heads the executive branch at each of the 3 levels of government? President
Who nominates and confirms Supreme Court justices? The president nominates and the senate approves
What did Brown v. Board of Education say? It declared the separation of blacks and whites unconstitutional.
What is our national legislature called? Congress
What does bicameral mean? 2 houses
None of the 3 branches of government is stronger than one another due to the system of __________. Checks and Balances
What are the two houses of Congress called/ The Senate and the House of Representative
How is representation determined in the House of Representatives? It's based on population of the state
What are the roles of the President and Governor? Chief of State Commander-in-Chief Head of Party Chief Legislator Chief Executive
What is the name of the President’s annual speech to Congress? State of the Union Address
What are the 3 branches of government and what do they do? Legislature: Make Laws Executive: Carry out laws Judicial: Make sure laws are being followed
What are the units of local government? county, township, city or political subdivision
What is the difference between civil and criminal law? Criminal laws: courts determine whether a a person is accused pf breaking the law Civil Laws: Courts settle a disagreement between two parties/
Which courts have jury trials? US District Court
What freedoms are guaranteed by the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution? Freedom of Religion Freedom of Speech Freedom of the Press Freedom of Assembly Right to Petition
How are amendments added to the U.S. Constitution? When 2/3 of the houses vote on agreeing to it.
How can the Constitution of Virginia be amended? Proposed by General Assembly Ratified by voters in VA
How does an individual become a U.S. citizen? Being born the US or Naturalization
What are the steps involved in naturalization? Finish and turn in application Must take test with knowledge of American history and English Take oath get certificate
What are the duties of citizenship? Obey Laws Pay Taxes Served in armed forces if called Serve jury if called
What is your #1 civic responsibility? What are some other responsibilities of citizens? -To contribute to the common good - Vote - Hold elective office - Participate in campaigns - Updated on current issues - Respect others' rights
How do citizens demonstrate thoughtful and effective participation in civic life? Following duties and getting involved with the community.
What does “separation of powers” mean? Each branch has power and one doesn't get more power over the others.
Which officials are locally elected? Mayors
Which powers do local governments exercise? Legislative, executive, and judicial
How do localities enact ordinances? The city council exercises legislative powers.
How do individuals and interest groups influence public policy? Voting and campaigning and identifying issues Lobbying officials Expressing opinions
Which international issues would require local government officials to act? Pandemic Terrorism Economic Development
What are the 3 basic economic questions all societies must answer? What will be produced? Who will produce it? For whom will it be produced?
What does “scarcity” mean? Inability to satisfy all wants at the same time.
Name and describe the 4 major economic systems. Free Market: Consumer/ minimal gov't involved Command: Lack of consumer choice/ Gov'tt rules Mixed: Individuals and businesses are decision makers for private sectors and Gov't is the public's Traditional: Decisions are made by custom
What type of economy does the United States have? Mixed Economy
What are the 5 essential characteristics of the United States economy? Markets Private Property Profit Competition Consumer Sovereignty
Describe what “choice” and “opportunity cost” mean in the U.S. economy. Choices are what you pick and opportunity cost is what you lose when making a choice.
Define “price” and explain how it is determined in the U.S. economy. A price is how much you need to pay for something. The price is determined by supply and demand.
Name and explain the 4 resources or factors of production. Natural Resources: Things from nature Capital Resources: Factory made items Human Resources: Service workers Entrepreneurship: Risk and rewards of production
Define incentives. Things that excite or motivate - changes economic behavior
Define supply and demand. Factors that are decided by consumers and determine price of goods.
Describe production and consumption. Production is the combination of resources to make goods and provide services. Consumption is buying and using what is produced.
List and describe the 3 basic types of business ownership in the U.S. Proprietorship: One owner takes all risks and all profits Partnership: Two or more owners share risks and profits Corporation: Business organization authorized by law to act as one person. Owners share profits. Owner liability is limited to investment.
How do individuals/households, businesses/producers and the government interact in the U.S. economy? Individuals buy products made from companies and businesses and households have to pay taxes. (Circular Economic Flow)
What are private financial institutions and what do they do? They act as intermediaries and channel funds between savers and borrowers, including households and business investors. (banks,savings and loans, and credit unions)
What is the role of the Federal Reserve System? To maintain the value of the national currency
What is the role of the U.S. government in protecting consumer rights and property rights? Passing laws and creating agencies
Which amendment gave the government the authority to tax personal incomes of citizens? 16th Amendment
How do financial institutions encourage saving and investing? Paying interest on deposits
What are public goods and services? Public goods are things open to anyone to buy or use. (schools, bathrooms) Public Services: Services that are provided for everyone in public.
How do governments produce public goods and services? Tax revenue borrowed funds fees
How does the government influence economic activity? Taxing, borrowing, and spending
What are the 4 levels of state courts? General District Courts Circuit Courts Court of Appeals VA Supreme Court
How does the United States government promote and regulate competition? - Enforcing antitrust legislaion to discourage development of monopolies - global trading - supporting business start ups
Name and describe 3 executive branch government agencies that regulate businesses. Federal Communications Commission; Regulates interstate and international communications Environmental Protection Agency: Protects the environment Federal Trade Commission: Protect consumers and promote competition
Why do Virginia and the United States trade with other nations? In order to increase wealth
What is the impact of technological innovation on world trade? It contributes to the global flow of information, capital, goods, and services. It also lowers cost of production.
Created by: Mahi3083694
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