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Anatomy: Urinary

Afferent arteriole Enters the glomerulus at the vascular pole and divides into capillaries which subsequently merge to form efferent arterioles.
Countercurrent mechanism A system in the renal medulla that facilitates concentration of the urine as it passes through the renal tubules.
Detrusor muscle A muscle that forms a layer of the wall of the bladder.
Efferent arteriole derived from the glomerular capillaries in the renal glomeruli, these arterioles exit from the glomerulus at its vascular pole.
Glomerulus A tuft of capillaries situated within a Bowman's capsule at the end of a renal tubule in the vertebrate kidney that filters waste products from the blood and thus initiates urine formation.
Glomerular Filtration the renal process whereby fluid in the blood is filtered across the capillaries of the glomerulus and into the urinary space of Bowman's capsule.
Juxtaglomerular apparatus/complex It is involved in the secretion of renin and EPO in response to blood pressure changes and is important in autoregulation of certain kidney functions.
Micturition The desire to urinate or the frequency of urination.
Nephron The structural and functional unit of the kidney, numbering about a million in the renal parenchyma, each being capable of forming urine
Peritubular capillaries Tiny blood vessels that travel alongside nephrons allowing reabsorption and secretion between blood and the inner lumen of the nephron.
Renal corpuscle The initial blood-filtering component of a nephron. It consists of two structures: a glomerulus and a Bowman's capsule.
Renal cortex The outer portion of the kidney between the renal capsule and the renal medulla. The part of the kidney where ultrafiltration occurs. Erythropoietin is produced in the renal cortex.
Renal medulla Contains the structures of the nephrons responsible for maintaining the salt and water balance of the blood.
Renal plasma threshold That concentration of a substance in plasma at which it begins to be excreted in the urine.
Renal tubule Each of the long, fine, convoluted tubules conveying urine from the glomeruli to the renal pelvis in the vertebrate kidney. Water and salts are reabsorbed into the blood along their length.
Retroperitoneal Pertaining to organs closely attached to the posterior abdominal wall and partly covered by peritoneum, rather than suspended by that membrane.
Trigone A triangular region of the wall of the urinary bladder, an area in which the muscle fibers are closely adherent to the mucosa; its three angles correspond with the orifices of the ureters and urethra. Called also vesical trigone.
Tubular reabsorption The act or process of absorbing again, as the absorption by the kidneys of substances that were already secreted into the tubules, such as glucose, proteins, or sodium.
Tubular secretion The transfer of materials from peritubular capillaries to renal tubular lumen and occurs mainly by active transport. It is the tubular secretion of H+ and NH4+ from the blood into the tubular fluid that helps to keep blood pH at its normal level.
Anuria Complete suppression of urine formation and excretio
Cystitis Inflammation of the urinary bladder.
Cystostomy Surgical formation of an opening into the bladder.
Diuresis Increased formation and secretion of urine.
Diuretic An agent that promotes diuresis.
Dysuria Painful or difficult urination
Hematuria Blood (erythrocytes) in the urine.
Incontinence Inability to control the voiding of urine.
Nephrectomy Surgical procedure of removing a kidney or section of a kidney.
Nephrolithiasis A disorder characterized by the presence of calculi in the kidney. Calculi is an abnormal concretion in the body, usually formed of mineral salts and most commonly found in the gallbladder, kidney, or urinary bladder. Also called stone.
Oliguria Diminished urine production and excretion in relation to fluid intake
Polyuria Excessive secretion of urine.
Pyelotomy incision of the renal pelvis.
Pyuria The presence of pus in the urine, usually a sign of urinary tract infection.
Uremia An excess of the nitrogenous end products of protein and amino acid metabolism in the blood. The entire constellation of signs and symptoms of chronic renal failure
Ureteritis Inflammation of a ureter.
Nephroptosis floating or hypermobile kidney; downward displacement of a kidney.
Created by: lizrod



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