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Anatomy

Final test

TermDefinition
FSH promotes growth or ovarian follicles and production of estrogen
LH triggers ovulation, converts the ruptured follicle into a corpus luteum and causes it to produce progesterone and estrogen, maintains the hormonal production of the corpus luteum
Estrogen and Progesterone inhibit follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) released by the anterior pituitary
Estrogen stimulates luteninzing hormone (LH) release by the anterior pituitary
Excess fluid is kept from accumulating in tissue spaces by the lymphatic system
The structure of a lymphatic vessel is most similar to that of a(an) vein
The two collecting ducts that drain the lymphatic trunks are the thoracic duct and right lymphatic duct
The formation of lymph increases as a result of increasing osmotic pressure in tissue fluid
The movement of lymph through lymphatic vessels is caused largely by muscular activity
The structures that allow fluids to flow INTO a lymph node are the afferent vessels
The major reason that lymph fluid must be returned to the circulatory system is to ensure a proper blood volume
Cells in a lymph node that engulf and destroy damaged cells, foreign substances, and cellular debris are macrophages
The lymphatic vessels flow one-way in which lymph flows only towards the heart
Which of the following would NOT be considered to be a lymphatic structure? pancreas
The lymphatic system will return approximately ___ back to the bloodstream in a 24-hour period 3 liters
The cells that are primarily responsible for immunity are lymphocytes and macrophages
T lymphocytes are responsible for the cellular immune response
Which of the following is NOT one of the four major sets of tonsils? nasal
the thymus is most active during childhood
A normal immune response requires both T and B cells
Which lymphatic capillaries transport absorbed fat from the small intestine to the bloodstream? lacteal
Lymph leaves a lymph node via the efferent vessels
which of the following would NOT be a major site of lymph nodes? appendix region
lymph capillaries are absent in all of the following EXCEPT for the digestive organs
which of the following is the LARGEST lymphoid organ spleen
the first lymphoid organ to appear in embryonic development is the thymus
In the human body, there are five major lymphatic trunks. They include the lumbar, bronchomediastinal, subclavian, jugular, and the ___ trunks intestinal
Lymphocytes, the main warriors of the immune system, arise in red bone marrow
The principal lymphoid organs in the human body is/are the lymph noded
Except for the thymus, all lymph organs are composed o reticular connective tissue
which of the following would NOT be a function of the human spleen? production of T and B cells
the thymus is in the mediastinum behind the sternum and above the heart true
they thymus may destroy older red blood cells false
during the primary immune response, B cells give rise to plasma cells true
The order of increasing size in the lymphatic system is the collecting vessels, the trunks and then the ducts. true
The larger of the ducts in the lymphatic system is the right lymphatic duct false
leaked proteins are also returned to the blood by the lymphatic system true
Lymph nodes have more vessels entering them than leaving them; this allows for more efficient filtration by the node true
The largest and most infected tonsils are the lingual tonsils false
The thymus is the only lymphoid organ that does not directly fight antigens true
All of the lymphoid tissues/organs are well-developed prior to birth in the human body. false
cancer-filler lymph nodes are both swollen and painful false
The ___ are the simplest lymphoid organs and are found at the entrance to the pharynx. tonsils
Disease-causing agents such as viruses and bacteria are called _________________. pathogens
The foreign or "nonself" proteins that trigger immune responses are called ____________________. antigens
The lymphatic system lacks an organ that acts as a ____ to help move lymph. pump
The major functions of the lymph nodes includes the immune system activation and _____. filtration
During the primary immune response, B cells give rise to _____________. plasma cells
If the spleen is removed from the body, the ___ and ___ ____ will take over most of its functions. liver, bone, marrow
Peyer’s patches can be found in the folds of the ___ ___ and are structurally similar to the tonsils. small intestine
In children younger than ___ years of age, the spleen will regenerate if a small part of it is left in the body. 12
The appendix is found on the first part of the ___ ___ and helps to destroy bacteria. large intestine
Except for the thymus, all lymphoid organs from the ___ germ layer. mesoderm
Which of the following is NOT a type of T cell in the human immune system? antigenic
The process whereby neutropils and other white blood cells are attracted to an inflammatory site is called ___. chemo-taxis
Which of the following is the correct sequence of events in phagocytosis? leukocytosis, margination, diapedesis, chemotaxis
Which of the following cells predominate at the site of a chronic infection? macro-phage
Benefits of the inflammatory response in the human body include all of the following EXCEPT that builds antibodies for future defense
Which of the following T cells is designed for killing virus-infected body cells and cancers cells and is also involved with tissue graft rejection? cytotoxic
The type of graft that involves using another animal species is called a(n) xenograft
Which of the following T cells is responsible for the immune response and without it there would be no immune response? helper T
Interferon is a group of proteins that cells produce in response to viruses
Which of the following statements about fever is NOT true? It is always damaging to body tissues
Which of the following would NOT be included in the body’s first line of defense? vaccination
The cells that are primarily responsible for immunity are lymphocytes and macrophages.
During embryonic development, the ___ and ___ are primarily responsible for the stem cells of the immune system. liver/spleen
The chemical messengers of the immune system are the cytokines
The body’s second line of defense includes all of the following EXCEPT for mucin
Haptens would be found in all of the following EXCEPT for bacteria
The most abundant type of immunoglobulin is IgG
A newborn infant may have some defense against digestive and respiratory disturbances because of IgA obtained from its mother's milk
The type of resistance that is a response to contracting an infectious disease is naturally acquired active immunity
As a result of an allergen-antibody(allergic) reaction mast cells release histamine
In an autoimmune disease, the immune response is directed toward cells of the body ("self").
During later human development and then into adult life, the ___ will be responsible for the stem cells of the immune system. bone marrow
The type of graft/transplant that comes from the same individual is a(n) autograft
Responses of the adaptive defense system react much faster than the innate defense system. false
The acidity of the skin, vaginal, and stomach secretions inhibits bacterial growth. true
Allografts, along with being the most common, are also among the most successful of grafts. false
Natural killer cells are not phagocytic; they cause a target cell to undergo apoptosis. true
antibodies themselves cannot destroy pathogens true
In active immunity, a person becomes immune to a pathogen as a result of having a disease. true
Antibodies are found not only in the blood but also in the tissues of the body. false
As a result of the allergen-antibody reaction, mast cells release histamine. true
Some components of acne and sweat are actually toxic to some bacteria. true
The farther one gets genetically away from itself, the more successful a graft will be. false
Anaphylactic shock is treated with the chemical known as ______. epinephrine
Disease-causing agents such as viruses and bacteria are called _________________. pathogens
The foreign or "nonself" proteins that trigger immune responses are called ____________________. antigens
The defenses that everybody has and are born with are called the ____ defense system. innate
___ result when the immune system damages tissue as it fights off a perceived threat that is usually harmless to the body. hypersensitivities
An ___ is an antigen that causes an allergic reaction. allergen
The type of immunity that resuls from the actions of substances like T cells is known as ___ immunity. cellular
Following a primary immune response, the B cells and T cells that remain dormant but are able to respond to antigens encountered in the future are called _________. memory cells
A substance that can stimulate a primary immune response but is unable to produce the symptoms of a disease is a(an) _________; it provides artifically aquired active immunity. vaccine
Those defenses that one develops over their lifetime are called the ___ defense system. adaptive
The type of immunity that results from such things as antibodies in the plasma is known as ___ immunity. humoral
The type of graft/transplant from an identical twin is known as a(n) ___. isograft
The most common type of an immediate hypersensitivity is a(n) ___. allergy
50% of all transplants may show rejection for up to ___ years after the transplant. 10
The type of T cell that is important for preventing autoimmune reactions are the ___ T cells. regulatory
on B cell surface; acts as antigen receptor IgD
active during allergic attacks or chronic parasitic infections IgE
stops pathogens from entering body; in saliva, sweat, intestinal juice IgA
first antibody released during primary response IgM
crosses placenta; protects against bacteria, viruses, toxins in blood/lymph IgG
lymphocytes multiply and form memory cells proliferation/differentiation
occurs when lymphocyte meets its antigen encounter/activation
development of lymphocytes in the thymus maturation
spreading of lymphocytes throughout lymphatic seeding
stem cells form in bone marrow origin
The human respiratory is involved in all of the following functions EXCEPT for body temperature regulation
The vocal cords are located within the larynx
Which of the following functions does the human nose NOT provide? space for air reserve
The accessory structures that aid in moistening and warming air as well as making the skull lighter are the sinuses
The pharynx region that serves as an airway and helps to equalize middle ear pressure is the nasopharynx
The pharynx region that serves as both a passageway for both food and air from the mouth to the epiglottis is the oropharynx
The pharynx region that serves as both a passageway for both food and air but extends to the larnyx is the laryngopharynx
The condition of newborns called infant respiratory distress syndrome is caused by lack of surfactant
Which of the following is NOT true of the human larynx? continuous with the esophagus
The typical number of orders of branches in the human bronchial tree is 23
Which of the following is the correct order of how the human bronchial tree branches? trachea, bronchi, lobar bronchi, segmental bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles
The actual site of gas exchange between incoming air and the blood occurs at the alveoli
Which of the following lung pressures must remain negative to prevent lung collapse? intrapleural
Complete the following statement using the choices below. Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is grater than the pressure in the atmosphere
There are different respiratory stimuli for breathing. Which is the most important? carbon dioxide concentration
Respiratory control centers are located in the pons and medulla
How is the bulk of carbon dioxide carried in blood? bicarbonate ion in plasma
A premature baby usually has difficulty breathing, However, the respiratory system is developed enough fro survival by 28 weeks
Which of the following is responsible for stopping inhalation and allowing exhalation? Hering-Breuer Reflex
From the following list of respiratory structures, which is most likely to develop FIRST? nose
The human trachea is composed of three different layers of tissue. true
The glottis is the opening between the vocal cords. true
The left lung is larger than the right lung. false
The left lung has only two lobes. true
Even though the human vocal cords are typically associated with sound production, they may also act as a sphincter to prevent air passage. true
The human larynx is composed of 11 different cartilages. false
All lung tissue is provided oxygenated blood by the bronchial arteries. false
Inspiration is usually a passive process while exhalation is generally an active process. false
Venous blood contains more saturated hemoglobin than arterial blood does. false
Respiratory irritant reflexes will constrict air passages and may cause coughs and sneezes. true
The human respiratory system will always have air in it even though one may think that all air has been expired. true
__________ is a substance secreted by cells in the lungs that reduces surface tension. surfactant
The layer of serous membrane that is firmly attached to the surface of a lung is called visceral ________. pleura
The floor of the nasal cavity are composed of the ___ and ___ . hard; soft palates
A voluntary increase in the rate and depth of breathing is called __________. hyperventilation
Ordinary air is about ____ % oxygen. 21
Within a mixture of gases, the pressure created by each gas is called its ________ pressure. partial
The two bones that make up the roof of the nasal cavity are the ___ and ___. ethmoid; sphenoid
All of the cartilage in the human larynx is made up of ___ cartilage except for the ___ which is ___ cartilage. hyaline; epiglotties; elastic
The movement that helps to empty the rectum and to stabilize the trunk during heaving lifting is known as _____ _____. (2 words) Valsalva's maneuver
A set of typical human lungs will have nearly ___ alveoli. 300 million
The two major components of the human lungs are structures known as ___ and ___. alveoli; stroma
While a person is at rest, normally about ___ of air moves through the respiratory system during one minute while under excercise one may use ___ of air. 6 liters; 200 liters
About 98% of oxygen is carried by RBC’s _____ while the remaining approximately 2% is carried by the blood’s ___. hemoglobin; plasma
The ___ is the breathing rhythm center that sets the normal breathing rates and rhythm. VRG
The ___ ___ encourages carbon dioxide exchange in tissues and lungs of the body. Haldane effect
amount of air forceably exhaled after a normal breath expiratory volume
maximum amount of air that can be forceably inhaled after a normal breath in inspiratory capacity
maximum amount of air that can be inhaled after a normal breath out inspiratory volume
maximum amount of air in lungs total lung capacity
air inhaled or exhaled normally while resting tidal volume
maximum amount of air exhaled after maximum inhalation vital capacity
air remaining in lungs after a forced exhalattion residual volume
air remaining in lungs after a normal exhalation functional residual capacity
lung collapse; due to wound, alveoli collapse, plugged bronchioles atelectasis
excessive breathing that removes too much carbon dioxide from body hyperventilation
dizziness, headaches, nausea due to quick change of atmospheric pressure acute mountain sickness
inadequate oxygen delivery to cells; may lead to cyanosis hypoxia
breathing cessation; common during sleep apnea
respiratory failure; usually accompanied by acidosis, hypoxemia hypoventilation
when human skin tone/color may become blue due to lack of oxygen cyanosis
inflammation of nasal membranes; may lead to sinus headache rhinitis
“air hunger”; any time that breathing is labored dypsnea
irreversible decrease in ability to force air out of lungs COPD
What are the four cardinal signs of acute inflammation, which could lead to the firth? Heat, Swelling, redness, pain, impaired function
the digestive system mechanically and chemically breaks down food for nutrient absorption
the alimentary canal extends, in its entirety form the mouth an anus
Created by: kristimaxfield