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AP Gov Chapter 3

Chapter 3 Vocab Terms

TermDefinition
Federal System System of government where the the national government and state governments derive all authority from the people(Constitution)- was designed to remedy many of the problems experienced under the Articles of Confederation.
Confederation National government derived all of its power from the states. Articles of Confederation led to weak national government that was often unable to respond to even small crises (Shay’s Rebellion)
Unitary System Found in Great Britain where the local and regional governments derived all of their power from a strong national government. Framers feared having too strong of a national government.
Enumerated Powers (Expressed Powers) 17 specific powers granted to congress under Article 1 section 8 of the Constitution. The powers include; Taxation, Coinage, Regulation of Commerce, and the power to provide for National Defense.
Necessary and Proper Clause the authority to enact any laws “necessary and proper” for carrying out any of its enumerated powers.
Implied Powers Powers derived from enumerated powers and the necessary and proper clause. They are not stated specifically but are considered to be reasonably implied through the exercise of delegated powers.
Delegated Powers All of the powers of the national government including enumerated and implied
Supremacy Clause (Judicial Interpretation) Portion of Article VI of Constitution mandating that national law is supreme to all other laws passed by states or any other subdivision of government.
Tenth Amendment the final part of the Bill of Rights that defines the basic principle of American federalism in stating
Reserved or Police Powers Powers reserved to the states by the Tenth Amendment that lie at the foundation of a state’s right to legislate for the public health and welfare of its citizens.
Concurrent Powers Powers shared by the national government and state governments as long as it has no conflict with national law. Power to tax for example
Bill of attainder law declaring an act illegal without judicial trial.
Ex Post Facto Law Law passed after the fact, thereby making previously legal activity illegal and subject to current penalty; prohibited by Constitution. Laws that make act punishable as a crime even if the action was legal at the time it was committed.
Full Faith and Credit Clause Article IV, ensures that judicial decrees and contracts made in one state will be binding and enforceable in another, thereby facilitating trade and other commercial relationships.
Privileges and Immunities Clause Article IV guaranteeing that the citizens of each state are afforded the same rights as citizens of all other states.
Extradition Clause Requires states to extradite, or return criminals to states where they have been convicted or are to stand trial.
Interstate Compacts contracts between states that carry the force of law; generally now used as a tool to address multi-state policy concerns. “No state shall, without the consent of Congress...enter into any Agreement or Compact with another state”.
McCulloch vs. Maryland 1819 (pg 104) SCOTUS upheld power of the nat. gov. & denied the right of a state to tax the fed. bank using due to the supremacy clause. This broad interpretation of the necessary and proper clause paved the way for later rulings upholding expansive federal powers.
Gibbons vs. Ogden 1824 (pg 105) The Supreme court upheld broad congressional power to regulate interstate commerce. Paved the way for expansion of federal powers.
Dual Federalism The belief that having separate and equally powerful levels of government is best arrangement
Sixteenth Amendment Authorized Congress to enact a national income tax without apportioning them among states.
Seventeenth Amendment Made senators directly elected by the people, removed their selection from state legislatures. Eliminated the state legislatures’ election of senators and put their election in the hands of the people.
Cooperative Federalism The relationship between the national and state government began with New Deal.
Categorical Grant Grant for which Congress appropriates funds for a specific purpose. Allocate federal dollars by a precise formula and are subject to detailed conditions imposed by the national government.
New Federalism Federal/ State relationship proposed by Reagan administration during the 1980s; hallmark is returning administrative powers to the state governments
Block Grant Broad grant with few strings attached; given to states by the federal government for specified activities, such as secondary education or health services.
Unfunded Mandates National laws that direct states or local governments to comply with federal rules or regulations (such as clean air or water standards) but contain little or no federal funding to defray the cost of meeting these requirements
Preemption A concept derived from the Constitution’s supremacy clause that allows the national government to override or preempt state or local actions in certain areas.
Sovereign Immunity The right of a state to be free from lawsuit unless it gives permission into the suit. Under the Eleventh Amendment, all states are considered sovereign.
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