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AP Gov Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Vocab Terms!

Mercantilism An economic theory designated to increase a nation’s wealth through the development of commercial industry and a favorable balance of trade
Stamp Act Congress Meeting of representatives of nine of thirteen colonies held in New York City in 1765, during which representatives drafted a document to send to their king listing how their rights had been violated
Committee of Correspondence Organization in each part of the American colonies created to keep colonists aware of developments with the British, served as powerful molders of public opinion.
First Continental Congress Meeting held in Philadelphia from September 5th to October 26th, 1774, in which fifty-six delegates (from every colony except Georgia) adopted a resolution in opposition to the Coercive Acts
Second Continental Congress Meeting that convened in Philadelphia on May 10th, 1775 at which it was decided that an army should be raised and George Washington of Virginia was named Commander in Chief
Confederation Type of government where the national government derives its powers from the states; a league of independent states
Declaration of Independence Document drafted by Thomas Jefferson in 1776 that proclaimed the right of the American colonies to separate from Britain
Articles of Confederation The compact among thirteen original states that was the basis of their government. Written in 1776, the Articles were ratified by all the states until 1781
Shay’s Rebellion A 1786 rebellion in which an army of 1,500 disgruntled and angry farmers led by Daniel Shays marched to Springfield, Massachusetts, and forcibly restrained the state court from foreclosing mortgages on their farms.
Virginia Plan The first general plan for the constitution. Its key points were a bicameral legislature, an executive chosen by the legislature, and a judiciary also named by the legislature. (Favored by bigger states)
New Jersey Plan A framework for the constitution proposed by a group of small states. Had one house legislature with one vote for each state, establishment of acts of congress as “supreme law”, and a judiciary with limited power.
Great Compromise A decision made during the Constitutional Convention to give each state the same number of senators in the Senate and then representation from population in the House.
Three Fifths Compromise Constitutional agreement making slaves 3/5th of a person when counting population
Separation of Powers Way of dividing power between 3 branches of government in which the House, Senate, the President, and the federal courts are selected by and responsible for different constituencies.
Checks and Balances Three branches of government have some degree of oversight and control over the actions of the other branches.
Federal System Power is divided between national and state governments and in which independent states are bound together under one national government
Federalists Favored a strong national government and supported Constitution. First Political Party.
Anti-Federalists Favored strong state governments, opposed Constitution.
The Federalist Papers A series of eighty five political papers written by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison in support of ratification of the U.S Constitution.
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