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AP Gov

All of the Vocab Terms!

Politics The Study of who gets what, when, and how
Monarchy Government where power is invested in hereditary kings who govern in the interest of all
Totalitarianism Government where power resides in individual leader based on self-interest
Oligarchy Government where the right to participate is conditioned on the possession of wealth, social status, military position or achievement
Democracy Government that gives power to the people directly or through elected representatives
Social Contract An agreement signifying consent to be governed.
Social Contract Theory The belief that people are free and that this in turn requires that all people give their consent to be governed; espoused by John Locke and influential in the writing of the Declaration of Independance
Direct Democracy Government where members of the polity (that’s a real word) meet to discuss all policy decisions and then agree to abide by majority rule
Indirect Democracy Government where citizens have the opportunity to vote for representatives who will work on their behalf
Republic Government rooted in the consent of the governed; a representative or indirect democracy
Political Culture Commonly shared attitudes, beliefs, and core values about how government should operate
Personal Liberty A key characteristic of U.S democracy. Initially meaning freedom from governmental interference, today it includes demands for freedom to engage in a variety of practices free from governmental interference or discrimination
Political Equality The principle that all citizens are equal in the political process that is implied by the phrase “one person, one vote”
Popular Consent The idea that government must draw their powers from the consent of the governed
Popular Sovereignty The notion that that the ultimate authority in society rests in the people
Natural Law A doctrine that society should be governed by certain ethical principles that are part of nature and, as such, can be understood by reason.
Civil Society Society created when citizens are allowed to organize and express their views publicly as they engage in an open debate about public policy
Ideology A set system of beliefs that shapes the thinking of individuals and how they view the world
Political Ideology The coherent set of value and beliefs about the purpose and scope of government held by groups and individuals
Libertarian One who favors a free market economy and no governmental interference in personal liberties.
Conservative One thought to believe that a government is best that governs least and that big government can only infringe on individual, personal and economic rights
Social Conservatives One who believes that the traditional moral teachings should be supported and furthered by the government
Liberals One considered to favor governmental involvement in the economy and in the provision of social services and to take an activist role in protecting the rights of women, the elderly, minorities, and the environment
Mercantilism An economic theory designated to increase a nation’s wealth through the development of commercial industry and a favorable balance of trade
Stamp Act Congress Meeting of representatives of nine of thirteen colonies held in New York City in 1765, during which representatives drafted a document to send to their king listing how their rights had been violated
Committee of Correspondence Organization in each part of the American colonies created to keep colonists aware of developments with the British, served as powerful molders of public opinion.
First Continental Congress Meeting held in Philadelphia from September 5th to October 26th, 1774, in which fifty-six delegates (from every colony except Georgia) adopted a resolution in opposition to the Coercive Acts
Second Continental Congress Meeting that convened in Philadelphia on May 10th, 1775 at which it was decided that an army should be raised and George Washington of Virginia was named Commander in Chief
Confederation Type of government where the national government where the national government derives its powers from the states; a league of independent states
Declaration of Independence Document drafted by Thomas Jefferson in 1776 that proclaimed the right of the American colonies to separate from Britain
Articles of Confederation The compact among thirteen original states that was the basis of their government. Written in 1776, the Articles were ratified by all the states until 1781
Shay’s Rebellion A 1786 rebellion in which an army of 1,500 disgruntled and angry farmers led by Daniel Shays marched to Springfield, Massachusetts, and forcibly restrained the state court from foreclosing mortgages on their farms.
Virginia Plan The first general plan for the constitution. Its key points were a bicameral legislature, an executive chosen by the legislature, and a judiciary also named by the legislature. (Favored by bigger states)
New Jersey Plan A framework for the constitution proposed by a group of small states. Had one house legislature with one vote for each state, establishment of acts of congress as “supreme law”, and a judiciary with limited power.
Great Compromise A decision made during the Constitutional Convention to give each state the same number of senators in the Senate and then representation from population in the House.
Three Fifths Compromise Constitutional agreement making slaves 3/5th of a person when counting population
Separation of Powers Way of dividing power between 3 branches of government in which the House, Senate, the President, and the federal courts are selected by and responsible for different constituencies.
Checks and Balances Three branches of government have some degree of oversight and control over the actions of the other branches.
Federal System Power is divided between national and state governments and in which independent states are bound together under one national government
Federalists Favored a strong national government and supported Constitution. First Political Party.
Anti-Federalists Favored strong state governments, opposed Constitution.
The Federalist Papers A series of eighty five political papers written by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison in support of ratification of the U.S Constitution.
Federal System System of government where the the national government and state governments derive all authority from the people(Constitution)- was designed to remedy many of the problems experienced under the Articles of Confederation.
Confederation National government derived all of its power from the states. Articles of Confederation led to weak national government that was often unable to respond to even small crises (Shay’s Rebellion)
Unitary System Found in Great Britain where the local and regional governments derived all of their power from a strong national government. Framers feared having too strong of a national government.
Enumerated Powers (Expressed Powers) 17 specific powers granted to congress under Article 1 section 8 of the Constitution. The powers include; Taxation, Coinage, Regulation of Commerce, and the power to provide for National Defense.
Necessary and Proper Clause the authority to enact any laws “necessary and proper” for carrying out any of its enumerated powers.
Implied Powers Powers derived from enumerated powers and the necessary and proper clause. They are not stated specifically but are considered to be reasonably implied through the exercise of delegated powers.
Delegated Powers All of the powers of the national government including enumerated and implied
Supremacy Clause (Judicial Interpretation) Portion of Article VI of Constitution mandating that national law is supreme to all other laws passed by states or any other subdivision of government.
Tenth Amendment the final part of the Bill of Rights that defines the basic principle of American federalism in stating
Reserved or Police Powers Powers reserved to the states by the Tenth Amendment that lie at the foundation of a state’s right to legislate for the public health and welfare of its citizens.
Concurrent Powers Powers shared by the national government and state governments as long as it has no conflict with national law. Power to tax for example
Bill of attainder law declaring an act illegal without judicial trial.
Ex Post Facto Law Law passed after the fact, thereby making previously legal activity illegal and subject to current penalty; prohibited by Constitution. Laws that make act punishable as a crime even if the action was legal at the time it was committed.
Full Faith and Credit Clause Article IV, ensures that judicial decrees and contracts made in one state will be binding and enforceable in another, thereby facilitating trade and other commercial relationships.
Privileges and Immunities Clause Article IV guaranteeing that the citizens of each state are afforded the same rights as citizens of all other states.
Extradition Clause Requires states to extradite, or return criminals to states where they have been convicted or are to stand trial.
Interstate Compacts contracts between states that carry the force of law; generally now used as a tool to address multi-state policy concerns. “No state shall, without the consent of Congress...enter into any Agreement or Compact with another state”.
McCulloch vs. Maryland 1819 (pg 104) The Supreme Court upheld the power of the national government and denied the right of a state to tax the federal bank using the Constitution’s supremacy clause. Paved the way for later government expansion.
Gibbons vs. Ogden 1824 (pg 105) The Supreme court upheld broad congressional power to regulate interstate commerce. Paved the way for expansion of federal powers.
Dual Federalism The belief that having separate and equally powerful levels of government is best arrangement
Sixteenth Amendment Authorized Congress to enact a national income tax without apportioning them among states.
Seventeenth Amendment Made senators directly elected by the people, removed their selection from state legislatures. Eliminated the state legislatures’ election of senators and put their election in the hands of the people.
Cooperative Federalism The relationship between the national and state government began with New Deal.
Categorical Grant Grant for which Congress appropriates funds for a specific purpose. Allocate federal dollars by a precise formula and are subject to detailed conditions imposed by the national government.
New Federalism Federal/ State relationship proposed by Reagan administration during the 1980s; hallmark is returning administrative powers to the state governments
Block Grant Broad grant with few strings attached; given to states by the federal government for specified activities, such as secondary education or health services.
Unfunded Mandates National laws that direct states or local governments to comply with federal rules or regulations (such as clean air or water standards) but contain little or no federal funding to defray the cost of meeting these requirements
Preemption A concept derived from the Constitution’s supremacy clause that allows the national government to override or preempt state or local actions in certain areas.
Sovereign Immunity The right of a state to be free from lawsuit unless it gives permission into the suit. Under the Eleventh Amendment, all states are considered sovereign.
Civil Liberties The personal guarantees and freedoms that the federal government cannot abridge by law, constitution, or judicial interpretation.
Civil Rights The government protected rights against arbitrary or discriminatory treatment.
Ninth Amendment Basically states that there are more rights than just the ones listed in the Bill of Rights.
Tenth Amendment Powers not delegated in the constitution to federal government go to states.
Due Process Clause Clause contained in the 5th and 14th Amendment, makes Bill of Rights provisions apply to states.
Substantive Due Process Clause Judicial interpretation of the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments that protects citizens from unjust laws
Incorporation Doctrine An interpretation of the Constitution that holds that the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment requires that state and local governments also guarantee those rights.
Selective Incorporation Judicial doctrine where most, but not all, Bill of Rights provisions are made applicable to the states via 14th Amendment.
Fundamental Freedoms Those rights defined by the Court to be essential to order, liberty, and justice and therefore entitled to the highest standard of review, strict scrutiny
First Amendment Protects freedom of speech, religion, assembly, and petition.
Establishment Clause The first clause in the First Amendment; it prohibits the national government from establishing a national religion.
Free Exercise Clause Protects government from interfering with right to practice religion, although some regulations can exist.
Prior Restraint Constitutional doctrine that prevents the government from prohibiting speech before the fact.
Writ of Habeas Corpus A prisoner must be proven to a judge to be held lawfully, and prisoners have a right to know the charges against them.
Clear and Present Danger Test From Schenck v. U.S (1919), draws line between unprotected and protected speech. Courts see if words could “create a clear and present danger that will bring about substantive evils” that Congress seeks “to prevent”
Direct Incitement Test From Brandenburg v. Ohio (1969). Advocacy of illegal action is protected by 1st Amendment unless imminent lawless action is intended and likely to occur.
Symbolic Speech Symbols, signs, and other methods of expression generally also considered to be protected by the first Amendment.
Libel False written statements or written statements offending someone’s reputation.
Slander Untrue spoken statements that defame the character of a person.
New York Times Co. v. Sullivan (1964) “Actual malice” must be proven to support libel against a public figure.
Fighting words “inflict injury or tend to incite an immediate breach of peace.” Not subject to restrictions of First Amendment.
Due Process Rights Procedural guarantees provided by the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Eighth Amendments for those accused of crimes.
Fourth Amendment Protection from unreasonable searches and seizures unless a warrant is issued.
Fifth Amendment Protects people accused of crimes. Provides for grand jury, protects from self-incrimination, and from taking life, liberty, or property without due process of law.
Miranda v. Arizona (1996) Criminals must be advised of their right to remain silent and to have counsel present.
Miranda Rights Statements that must be made by the police informing a suspect of his or her right to an attorney provided by the court if the suspect cannot afford one.
Double Jeopardy Clause 5th Amendment, says suspects cannot be tried twice for the same crime.
Exclusionary Rule Judicially created rule that prohibits police from using illegally seized evidence at trial.
Sixth Amendment States due process of law for criminal trials. Speedy and public trials, impartial trials, in the state where crime was committed, notice of the charges, right to confront witnesses, and the right to counsel.
Eighth Amendment No cruel or unusual punishments or bills.
Right to Privacy The right to be let alone, a judicially created doctrine encompassing an individual’s decision to use birth control or secure an abortion.
Roe v. Wade (1973) This case said that women had the right to have an abortion.
Civil rights government-protected rights of individuals against arbitrary treatment by people/government cause of race, sex, etc.
13th amendment banned slavery in U.S.
Black codes laws denying most legal rights to newly freed slaves
14th amendment guarantees equal protection/due process of law to all U.S. citizens
15th amendment gave newly freed male slaves right to vote
Jim Crow laws laws that discriminated against blacks by creating “whites only” public areas
Poll tax tax on voting to stop poor blacks from voting
Grandfather clause only those whose grandfathers had voted could vote (stopped blacks from voting)
Plessy v. Ferguson caused Supreme Court to say that discrimination was legal as long as the separate facilities were “separate but equal” (short version)
Suffrage movement drive for women’s right to vote
19th amendment gave women right to vote
Brown v. Board of Edu school segregation illegal because violated 14th amendment, ending legal segregation in the U.S. (short version)
Equal protection clause section of 14th amendment that guarantees equal protection of the law to all
Civil Rights Act of 1964 outlawed segregation in public plus racial discrimination in employment, education, and voting
De Jure Discrimination racial discrimination caused by the law (illegal)
De Facto Discrimination racial discrimination caused by practice, such as personal acts/housing patterns(legal)
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission federal agency that enforces the Civil Rights Act
Equal rights Amendment proposed amendment that would have barred discrimination against women
Suspect classification category (race mainly) that triggers highest judicial scrutiny
Strict scrutiny heightened standard of review used by the Supreme Court
Title IX bars schools from discriminating against females
Affirmative action policies giving attention/compensatory treatment to a previously disadvantaged group
Bicameral legislature two house legislature
Apportionment allotting congressional seats to each state following changes in their populations
Redistricting redrawing of congressional districts to reflect increases/decreases in population
Bill proposed legislation
Impeachment power of House to officially investigate and charge the president
Majority party party with the most members in Congress
Minority party party with least members in Congress
Speaker of the house Head of the House; only member mentioned in the Constitution
Party Caucus/Conference Formal gathering of all party members
Majority Leader Elected leader of the majority party
Minority Leader Elected leader of the minority party
Whip Maintains contact with all party members, takes nose counts of key votes, and ensures that party loyalty is kept
President Pro Tempore Official chair of Senate; usually most senior member of majority party
Standing Committee Committee to which proposed bills are referred
Joint Committee Committee with members from both houses
Conference Committee Joint Committee created to iron out differences in Senate/House bills
Select Committee Temporary Committee appointed to conduct special studies/investigations
Discharge Petition Vote by majority in House that puts bill onto floor cause of inaction in committee
Pork Legislation that brings jobs, money, etc. to representative’s districts
Earmark Funds that bill gives to state/district
Seniority Time of continuous service on a Committee
Incumbency being in office helps person stay in office because of air time, recognition, etc.
Trustee reps. listen to people’s opinions, but may make decisions based on their own judgements
Delegate Reps. listen to people’s opinions and make decisions based on these opinions
Politicos Reps. that act as trustees and delegates depending on the issue
Divided Government When different parties control Congress and the White House
Logrolling Voting for a bill expecting that the supporter of said bill will vote for your bill later on
Markup Committee members offer changes to bill before it goes to the floor
Hold Senators asking to be informed before a bill goes to the floor, showing that they may not support it
Filibuster Way to kill a bill by calling for unlimited debate on it
Cloture 60 senators voting to end a filibuster
Veto President rejects a bill, killing it
Pocket Veto If Congress adjourns after 10 days, and the president hasn’t signed the bill, it is considered to be dead
Congressional Review A process whereby Congress can nullify agency regulations by a joint resolution of legislative disapproval
War Powers Act Passed in 1973; the president is limited in the deployment of troops overseas to a sixty day period in peacement (which can be extended for an extra thirty days to permit withdrawal) unless Congress explicitly gives its approval for a longer period
Senatorial Courtesy A process by which presidents, when selecting district court judges, defer to the senator in whose state the vacancy occurs
22nd Amendment Limits President to two and a half terms in office
Impeachment Power of House of Representative to charge “civil officers” of “Treason, Bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.
Executive privilege Implied power to refuse to disclose classified information to Congress of judiciary
U.S v. Nixon (1974) President has no right to not comply with court order in a criminal trial
25th Amendment Provides details on what to do in case of vacancies in office of President and Vice President as well as procedures to deal with disability of President.
Cabinet Presidential advisers who head the Fifteen executive departments
Executive Agreement Government agreement entered into by the President that does not require senate approval
Line-item veto Ability of president to delete a part of a veto. Can still be blocked by 2/3rd’s majority in Congress.
War Powers Act Limited deployment of troops overseas to a sixty day period in peacetime, unless otherwise stated by Congress.
Pardon Power of president to restore rights and privileges to someone charged or convicted of a crime.
Inherent powers Powers that belong to the national government simply because it is a sovereign state.
New Deal The program of “Relief, Recovery, Reform” begun by FDR in 1933 to bring the United States out of the Great Depression
Executive Office of the President (EOP) Created in 1939 to help oversee the executive bureaucracy.
Patronage Jobs, grants, or other special favors that are given as rewards to friends and political allies for their support
Office of Management and Budget (OMB) The Office that prepares the president’s annual budget proposal, reviews the budget and programs of the executive departments, supplies, economic forecasts, and conducts detailed analyses of proposed bills and agency rules.
Executive Order Rule or order by President that has the effect of law.
Bureaucracy Set of complex hierarchical departments that exist to help a CEO carry out his/her duties
Spoils System Firing of people of the defeated political party and hiring people who helped out in the election
Patronage Jobs, grants, etc that are given as rewards for support
Pendleton Act Reform measure that created the CSC to administer a partial merit system; classified the federal service by grades, to which appointments were made based on the results of an examination
Civil Service System System created by civil service laws by which appointments to the federal gvt are made
Merit System System by which federal civil service jobs are classified into grades/level
Independent Regulatory Commission Agency created by Congress that is generally concerned w/ a specific aspect of the economy
Departments Minor administrative units with responsibility for a broad area of gvt operations
Government Corporation Businesses established by Congress (US Postal Service)
Independent Executive Agency Gvt unit that closely resembles a Cabinet department but more specialised
Hatch Act 1939 law that prohibited civil servants from taking activist roles in partisan campaigns
Federal Employees Political Activities Act 1993 liberalisation of the Hatch Act that allowed fed employees to run for office in nonpartisan elections and to give money to campaigns in partisan elections
Implementation Process by which a law or policy is put into operation by the bureaucracy
Iron Triangles Relationship/patterns of interaction between agency, interest group, & congressional committee
Issue Networks Loose, informal relationships between large number of actors who work in broad policy areas
Interagency Councils Working groups created to facilitate coordination of policy making/implementation
Administrative Discretion Ability of bureaucrats to make choices concerning the best way to implement congressional intentions
Rulemaking Quasi-legislative administrative process that has the characteristics of a legislative act
Regulations Rules that oversee a gvt program that have the force of law
Administrative Adjudication Quasi-judicial process in which the bureaucracy settle a dispute
Judicial Review Power of the courts to review acts of other branches of government and the states
Judiciary Act of 1789 Established basic three tiered structure of the fed court system
Marbury vs. Madison 1803 Case in which USSC asserted the power of judicial review!
Trial Courts Courts of original jurisdiction
Appellate Courts Courts that review only the findings of law made by lower courts
Jurisdiction Authority vested in a particular court to hear and decide the issues
Original Jurisdiction Jurisdiction of courts that hear a case first (usually in trial)
Appellate Jurisdiction Power vested in an appellate court to review/revise the decision of a lower court
Criminal Law Codes of behavior related to the protection of property and individual safety
Civil Law Codes of behavior related to business and contractual relationships
Constitutional Courts Federal courts specifically created by the Constitution/Congress
Legislative Courts Courts established by congress for a specialised purpose (court of military appeals)
Brief Document containing the legal written arguments of a case
Precedent A prior judicial decision that serves as a rule for settling subsequent cases of similar nature
Stare Decisis A reliance on past decisions or precedents to formulate decisions in new cases
Senatorial Courtesy Process by which presidents generally defer selection of district court judges to the choice of senators of their own party who represent the state where vacancy occurs
Writ of Certiorari A request for the court to order up the records from a lower court to review the case
Rule of Four At least four justices of the Supreme Court must vote to consider a case before it can be heard
Solicitor General The fourth-ranking member of the Department of Justice; responsible for handling all appeals on behalf of the US government to the Supreme court
Amicus Curiae “Friend of the Court” amici may file briefs or even appear to argue their interests orally before the court
Judicial Restraint A philosophy of judicial decision making that argues courts should allow the decisions of other branches of government to stand, even when they offend a judge’s own sense of principles
Judicial Activism A philosophy of judicial decision making that argues judges should use their power broadly to further justice, especially in the areas of equality and personal liberty
Strict Constructionist An approach to constitutional interpretation that emphasizes the Framers’ original intentions
Judicial Implementation Refers to how and whether judicial decisions are translated into actual public policies affecting more than the immediate parties to a lawsuit
Political Socialization The process through which individuals acquire their political beliefs and values
Public Opinion What the public thinks about a particular issue or set of issues at any point in time
Public Opinion Polls Interviews or surveys with samples of citizens that are used to estimate the feelings and beliefs of the entire population
Straw Polls Unscientific surveys used to gauge public opinions on a variety of issues and policies
Random Sampling A method of poll selection that gives each person in a group the same chance of being selected
Stratified Sampling A variation of random sampling; census data are used to divide the country into four sampling regions. Sets of countries and standard metropolitan statistical areas are then randomly selected proportion to the total national population.
Push Polls Polls taken for the purpose of providing information on an opponent that would lead respondents to vote against the candidate.
Tracking Polls Continuous surveys that enable a campaign to chart its daily rise or fall in support
Exit Polls Polls conducted at selected polling places on Election Day
Sampling Error or Margin of Error A measure of the accuracy of a public opinion poll
Political Ideology The coherent set of values and beliefs about the purpose and scope of government held by groups and individuals
Political Party an organized effort by office holders, candidates, activities, and voters to pursue their common interests by gaining and exercising power through the electoral process
Governmental Party The office holders who organize themselves and pursue policy objectives under a party label
Organizational Party The workers and activists who make up the party’s formal organization structure
Party in the Electorate The voters who consider themselves allied or associated with the party
Machine A party organization that recruits voter loyalty with tangible incentives and is characterized by a high degree of control over member activity
Direct Primary The selection of party candidates through the ballots of qualified voters rather than at a party nominating conventions
Civil Service Laws These acts removed the staffing of the bureaucracy from the political parties and created a professional bureaucracy filled through competition
Issue-Oriented Politics Politics that focus on specific issues rather than on party, candidate, or other loyalties
Ticket- Split To vote for candidates of different parties for various offices in the same election
Candidate- Centered Politics Politics that focuses directly on the candidates, their particular issues, and character, rather than on party affiliation
Party Realignment A shifting of party coalition groupings in the electorate that remains in place for several elections
Critical Election An election that signals a party realignment through voter polarization around new issues
Secular Realignment The gradual rearrangement of party coalitions, based more on demographic shifts than on shocks to the political system
Conventional Political Participation Political participation that attempts to influence the political process through well-accepted, often moderate forms of persuasion.
Unconventional Political Participation Attempts to influence the political process through unusual or extreme measures, such as protests, boycotts, and picketing
Turnout The proportion of the voting-age public that votes
Ticket-splitting Voting for candidates of different parties for various offices in the same election
Retrospective Judgement A voter’s evaluation of the performance of the party in power
Prospective Judgement A voter’s evaluation of a candidate
Authoritarian System A system of government that bases its rule on force rather than consent of the governed.
Electorate The citizens eligible to vote
Mandate A command, indicated by an electorate’s votes, for the elected officials to carry out their platforms
Primary Election Election in which voters decide which of the candidates within a party will represent the party in the general election.
Closed Primary A primary election in which only a party’s registered voters are eligible to vote
Open Primary A primary in which party members, independants, and sometimes members of the other party are allowed to vote
Crossover Voting Participation in the primary of a party with which the voter is not affiliated
Raiding An organized attempt by voters of one party to influence the primary results of the other party
Runoff Primary A second primary election between the two candidates will actually fill elective public offices
General Election Election in which voters decide which candidates will actually fill elective public offices
Ballot Measure An election option such as the initiative or referendum that enables voters to enact public policy
Initiative An election that allows citizens to propose legislation and submit it to the state electorate for public vote.
Referendum An election whereby the state legislature submits proposed legislation to the state’s voters for approval.
Recall An election in which voters can remove an incumbent from office by popular vote
Front Loading The tendency of states to choose an early date on the primary calendar.
Unit Rule A traditional party practice under which the majority of a state delegation can force the minority to vote for its candidate
Superdelegate Delegate slot to the Democratic Party’s national convention that is reserved for an elected party official.
Electoral College Representatives of each state who cast the final ballots that actually elect a president
Elector Member of the Electoral College chosen by methods determined in each state
Reapportionment The reallocation of the number of seats in the House of Representatives after each decennial census
Redistricting Redrawing congressional districts to reflect increases or decreases in seats allotted to the states as well as population shifts within a state
Gerrymandering The legislative process through which the majority party in each statehouse tries to assure that the maximum number of representatives from its political party can be elected to Congress through the redrawing of legislative districts
Midterm Election An election that takes place in the middle of a presidential election
Regional Primary A proposed system in which the country would be divided into five or six geographic areas and all states in each region would hold their presidential primary elections on the same day
Mass Media The entire array of organizations through which information is collected and disseminated to the general public
News Media Media providing the public with new information about subjects of public interest
Yellow Journalism A form of newspaper publishing in vogue in the late nineteenth century that featured pictures, comics, color, and sensationalized, oversimplified news coverage
Muckraking A form of journalism, in vogue in the early twentieth century, concerned with reforming government and business conduct.
Print Media The traditional form of mass media, comprising newspapers, magazines, newsletters, and journals
Broadcast Media Televisions, radio, cable, and satellite services
Paid Media Political advertisements purchased for a candidate's campaign
Network An association of broadcast stations that share programming through a financial arrangement
Affiliates Local television stations that carry the programming of a national network
Wire Service An electorate delivery of news gathered by the news services correspondents and sent to all member news media organizations
Narrowcasting Targeting media programming at specific population within society
Blog Web-based journal entries that provide an editorial and news outlet for citizens
Content Regulating Government attempts to regulate the substance of the mass media
Equal Time Rule The rule that requires broadcast stations to sell air time equally to all candidates in a political campaign if they choose to sell it to any
Fairness Doctrine Rule in effect from 1949 to 1985 requiring broadcasters to cover events adequately and to present contrasting views in important public issues
Free Media Coverage of a candidate's campaign by the news media
New Media New technologies, such as the Internet, that blur the line between paid and free media sources
Positive Ad Advertising on behalf of a candidate that stresses the candidate’s qualifications, family, and issue positions, without reference to the opponent.
Negative Ad Advertising on behalf of a candidate that attacks the opponent's platform or character
Contrast Ad Ad that compares the records and proposals of the candidates, with a bias toward the sponsor.
Spot Ad Television advertising on behalf of a candidate that is broadcast in sixty-, thirty-, or ten second duration
Social Welfare Policy A government program designed to improve quality of life
Public Policy An intentional course of action followed by government in dealing with some problem or matter of concern
Public Policy Process Problem Identification, Agenda Setting, Policy Making, Budgeting, Policy Implementation, Evaluation.
Problem Recognition Identification of an issue that disturbs the people and leads them to call for governmental intervention.
Agenda Setting Government recognition that a problem is worthy of consideration for governmental intervention
Policy Formulation Specific identification of alternative approaches to addressing the problem based on government’s agenda
Policy Adoption The formal selection of public policies through legislative, executive, judicial, and bureaucratic means
Budgeting the allocation of resources to provide for the proper implementation of public policies
Policy Implementation the actual administration or application of public policies to their targets
Policy Evaluation the determination of a policy’s accomplishments, consequences, or shortcomings
Agenda A set of issues to be discussed or given attention
Systemic Agenda All public issues that are viewed as requiring governmental attention; a discussion agenda
Governmental (Institutional) Agenda The changing list of issues to which governments believe they should address themselves
Agenda Setting The constant process of forming the list of issues to be addressed by government
Social Security Act (1935) Law that established old-age insurance and assistance for the needy, children, and others, and unemployment insurance.
Non-means-based programs Program like Social Security where benefits are provided irrespective of the income or means of the recipients
Means-Tested Programs income security program that assist people with income below a certain level
Medicare Federal program by LBJ that provides medical care to elderly social security recipients
Medicaid An expansion of medicare. It subsidizes medical care for the poor.
Business Cycles Fluctuation between expansion and recession that are a part of modern capitalist economics.
Laissez-Faire A French term literally meaning “to allow to do, to leave alone.” It is a hands-off governmental policy that is based on the belief that government involvement in the economy is wrong.
Interventionist State Alternative to the laissez-faire state; the government take an active role in guiding and managing the private
Economic Regulation Government regulation of business practices, industry rates, routes, or areas serviced by particular industries.
Social Regulation Government regulation of the quality and safety of products as well as the conditions under which goods and services are produced.
Deregulation A reduction in market controls (such as price fixing, subsidies, or controls on who can enter the field) in favor of market-based competition
Economic Stability A situation in which there is economic growth, rising national income, high employment, and steadiness in the general level of prices.
Inflation A rise in the general price levels of an economy
Recession A short-term decline in the economy that occurs as investment sags, production falls off, and unemployment increases.
Monetary Policy A form of government regulation in which the nation’s money supply and interest rates are controlled.
Money A system of exchange for goods and services that includes currency, coins, and bank deposits.
Isolationism A national policy of avoiding participation in foreign affairs
Unilateralism A national policy of acting without consulting others
Moralism The policy of emphasizing morality in foreign affairs
Pragmatism The policy of taking advantage of a situation for national gain.
Embargo Act Passed by Congress in 1807 to prevent U.S ships from leaving U.S ports for foreign ports without the approval of the federal government
Monroe Doctrine President James Monroe’s 1823 pledge that the United States would oppose attempts by European states to extend their political control into the Western Hemisphere.
Tariffs Taxes on imports used to raise government revenue and to protect infant industries
Manifest Destiny Theory that the United States was divinely mandated to expand across North America to the Pacific Ocean.
Roosevelt Corollary Concept developed by President Theodore Roosevelt early in the twentieth century that it was the U.S responsibility to assure stability in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Collective Security The concept that peace would be secured if all countries collectively opposed any country that invaded another.
League of Nations Created in the peace treaty that ended WWI, it was an international governmental organization dedicated to preserving peace.
Pearl Harbor Naval base in Hawaii attacked by Japan on December 7, 1941, initiating U.S Entry into World War 2.
United Nations An international governmental organization created shortly before the end of World War II, to guarantee the security of nations and to promote global economic, physical and social well-being.
International Governmental Organization (IGO) An organization created by the governments of at least two and often many countries that operates internationally with the objectives of achieving the purposes that the member countries agree upon.
Bretton Woods Agreement International financial agreement signed shortly before the end of World War 2 to stabilize international financial relations through fixed monetary exchange rates.
International Monetary Fund (IMF) International governmental organization created shortly before the end of World War 2 to stabilize international financial relations through fixed monetary exchange rates.
World Bank International Governmental Organization created shortly before the end of World War 2 to provide loans for large economic development projects.
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) Devised shortly after World War 2 as an interim agreement until a World Trade Organization could be created to help lower tariffs and increase trade.
Multilateralism The U.S foreign policy that actions should be taken in cooperation with other states after consultation.
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