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AP Human Ch. 9 Vocab

Development - AP Human Geography, Chapter 9, Rubenstein

TermDefinition
Active solar energy systems Solar energy that collects energy through the use of mechanical devices such as photovoltaic cells or flat-plate collectors
Adolescent fertility rate The number of births per 1,000 women ages 15 to 19
Biomass fuel Fuel that derives from plant material and animal waste
Breeder reactor A nuclear power plant that creates its own fuel from plutonium
Fair trade An alternative to international trade that emphasizes smaller businesses and requires employers to pay fair wages, permit unions, and comply with standards
Female labor force participation rate The percentage of women holding full-time jobs outside the home
Foreign direct investment (FDI) Investments made by foreign countries in the economy of another country
Fossil fuel An energy source formed from the residue of plants and animals buried millions of years ago
Hydraulic fracturing (fracking) The pumping of water at high pressure to break apart rocks in order to release natural gas
Gender Inequality Index (GII) A measure of the extent of each country's gender inequality
Geothermal energy Energy from steam or hot water poured on hot or molten underground rocks
Gross domestic product (GDP) The value of the total output of goods and services produced in a country in a given time period (normally one year)
Gross national income (GNI) The value of the output of goods and services produced in a country in a year, including money that leaves and enters the country
Human Development Index (HDI) An indicator of the levels of development for each country based on income, literacy, education, and life expectancy. Constructed by the UN.
Hydroelectric power Power generated from moving water
Inequality-adjusted HDI Modification of HDI to account for inequality within a country. Best case scenario: the HDI and IHDI are the same
Maternal mortality ratio The number of women who die giving birth per 100,000 births
Microfinance Loans and other financial services to individuals and small businesses in developing countries
Millennium Development Goals Eight international development goals that the UN agreed to achieve by 2015
Passive solar energy systems Solar energy systems that collect energy without the use of mechanical devices
Photovoltaic cell A solar energy cell, usually made from silicon, that collects solar rays to generate electricity
Potential reserve The amount of a resource in deposits not yet identified but thought to exist
Primary sector The portion of the economy concerned with directly extracting materials from Earth's surface through agriculture, mining, fishing, and forestry
Proven reserve The amount of a resource remaining in discovered deposits
Purchasing power parity (PPP) The amount of money needed in one country to purchase the same goods and services in another country. Adjusts income figures to account for differences among countries in the cost of goods.
Radioactive waste Materials from a nuclear reaction that emit radiation. Contact with such materials could be harmful or lethal, so they must be stored for thousands of years.
Secondary sector The portion of the economy concerned with manufacturing useful products through processing, assembling, and transforming raw materials
Structural adjustment program Economic policies imposed on less developed countries applying for debt relief that require the country to make reforms meant to improve its economy
Tertiary sector The portion of the economy concerned with providing goods and services to people in exchange for payment (ex: retail, banking, education, government)
Value added The gross value of a product minus the cost of raw materials and energy
Created by: emilyjane1221