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AP Euro Exam

Revival of Antiquity The awakening from the dark ages and the focusing on the Roman's
Friar Girolamo Savonarola Dominican friar who attacked Paganism and moral vice of Medici and Alexander VI. Was burned at the stake in Florence
Secularism the belief in material things instead of religious things.
lorenzo Valla Father of modern historical criticism
Vernacular Everyday language of a specific nation
Virtu The striving for excellence. Humanistic aspect of the Renaissance
Act of Supremacy Declared the king the head of the Church of England
Anglicanism Upholding to the teachings of the Church of England as defined by Elizabeth I
John Calvin theological writings profoundly influenced religious thoughts of Europeans. Developed Calvinism at Geneva. Predetermination.
Consubtantiation the bread and wine undergo a spiritual change
Council of Trent Called by Pope Paul III to reform the church and secure reconciliation with the Protestants. Lutherans and Calvinists did not attend.
Thomas Cranmer Prepared the First Book of Common Prayer
Diet of Worms assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V
Edict of Nantes Granted the Huguenots liberty of conscience and worship. 1598
Excommunication When a person is kicked out of the Catholic Church
Huguenots French Calvinists
John Huss Bohemian religious reformer whose efforts to reform the church eventually fueled the Protestant Reformation
Ignatius Loyola Founded the Society of Jesus, resisted the spread of Protestantism
Indulgences Selling of these was common practice by the Catholic Church, corruption that led to reformation
The Institutes of Christian Religion John Calvin
Jesuits Members of the Society of Jesus, staunch Catholics, led by Loyola
John Knox Dominated the movement for reform in Scotland. Had been taught by Calvin in Switzerland
Martin Luther 95 theses, posted in 1517, led to religious reform in Germany, denied papal power and absolutist rule, Claimed there were only two sacraments: communion and baptism
Simony the selling of Church offices
Ususry The practice of lending money for interest
Theocracy A community in which the state is subordinate to the church
Predestination Calvin's religious theory that God has already planned out a person's life
Johann Tetzel The leading seller of Indulgences
Thomas Wolsey Cardinal, highest ranking church official and lord chancellor. Dismissed by Henry VIII for not getting the pope to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon.
John Wycliffe Forerunner to the Reformation. Created English Lollardy. Attacked the corruption of the clergy, and questioned the power of the pope.
Ulrich Zwingli Swiss reformer, influenced by Christian Humanism. He looked to the state to supervise the church. Banned music and relics form services. Killed in a civil war.
Baroque Style in art and architecture developed in Europe from about 1550 to 1700, emphasizing dramatic, curving forms, elaborate ornamentation, and overall balance of disparate parts. Associated with Catholicism.
Defenestration of Prague The throwing of Catholic officials from a castle window in Bohemia. Started 30 years war.
Peace of Westphalia Treaty the ended 30 Years War and readjusted the political and religious affairs of Europe.
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre Mass slaying Huguenots in Paris, 1572
War of the Three Henrys French civil war because the Holy League vowed to bar Henri of Navarre from inheriting the French throne. Supported by the Holy League and Philip II of Spain, Henri of Guise battles Henri III of Valois and Henri of Navarre.
John Cabot Italian-born navigator explored the coast of New England, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland. Gave England a claim in North America
Pedro Cabral Claimed Brazil for Portugal
Entrepot Big commercial center for importing and exporting commdities
Conquistadors Spanish conqueror of soldier in the New World
Bartholomew Diaz Portuguese, first European to reach southern tip of Africa
Sir Francis Drake English sea captain, robbed Spanish treasure ships, armada
King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella Monarchs who united Spain, reconquista
Encomienda Indians were required to work a certain number of days for a land owner, had to work their own land as well
Vasco de Gama Sailed from Portugal to India
Prince Henry the Navigator Prince of Portugal who established an observatory and school of navigation at Sagres and directed voyages that spurred the growth of Portugal's colonial empire
Magellan Portuguese navigator. While trying to find a western route to Asia, he was killed in the Philippines. One of his ships returned to Spain, thereby completing the first circumnavigation of the globe
Sir Walter Raleigh English courtier, navigator colonizer, writer. Favorite of Elizabeth I, was convicted of treason by Jammes I
Treaty of Tordesillas Set the Line of Demarcation which was a boundry established in 1493 to define Spanish and Portuguese possesions in America
Giovanni de Verrazano Italian explorer of the Atlanitc coast of North America
Absolutism When soverignty is embodied in the person of the ruler
Sovereignty Possessing a monopoly over the instruments of justice.
Totalitarianism Twentieth century phenomeno that seeks to direct all facets of a state's culture in the interest of state
Cardinal Richelieu Became President of of the Council of ministers and the first minister of the first French crown.
Louis XIII Influenced by Richelieu to exult the French monarchy as the embodiemnt of the French state
Fronde 1648-53. Brutal civil wars that struck France during the reign of Louis XIII
Jules Mazarin Became a cardinal in 1641 succeeded Richelieu and dominated the power in Frecnh government
Su King Louis XIV had the longest reign in European history. Helped France to reach its peak of absolutist developement
Louis XIV King of France who ruled as an absolute monarch, even as a child
Jean-Baptise Colbert An advisor to Louis XIV and proved to be a financial genius who managed the entire royal administration.
Mercantilism the philosophy that a state's strength depends on its wealth.
French classicism Art literature and advcnements during the age of Louis XIV
Nicholas Poussin French classical painter who painted the Rape of Sabine Women known as the greatest French painter of the 17th century
William of Orange Dutch prince invited to be king of England after the Glorious Revolution. Joined League of Augsburg as a foe of Louis XIV.
Louis Pontachartrain French controller of finance who imposed the capitation of an annual poll tax
Peace of Utrecht Ended Louis XIV's attempts to gain military power and land. End of French expansionist policy. End of Spanish war of Succession.
Constitutionalism Limitation of government by law, developed in times of absolutionism
Leviathan Written by English philosopher Thomas Hobbes, maintained that sovereignty is ultimately derived from the people, who transfer it to the monarchy by implicit contract
William Laude Archbishop of Canterbury, tried to impose elaborate ritual and rich ceremonies on all churches. insisted on complete uniformity of the church and enforced it through the Court of High Comission.
Oliver Cromwell As Lord Protector of England he used his army to control the government and constituted military dictatorship
The Restoration Restored English monarchy to Charles II, both Houses of Parliament were restored, established Anglican church, courts of law and local government.
John Locke Believed that people were born like blank slates and the environment shapes development (tabula rasa)
Thomas Hobbes Leading secular exponent of absolutism and unlimited sovereignty of the state. Absolutism produced civil peace and rule of law. Tyranny is better that chaos. Claimed life was "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short."
Bill of Rights 1689, no law can be suspended by the king, no taxes raised, no army maintained except by parliamentary consent. Establish after the Glorious Revolution.
New Model Army Created by Cromwell
Petiton of Rights Limited power of Charles I of England. Could not declare martial law, could not collect taxes, could not imprison people without casue, soldiers could not be housed without consent
War of Austrian Succession Conflict caused by the rival claims for the dominions of the Habsburg family. before the death of Charles VI, HRE and archduke of Austria, many of European powers had guarenteed that Charles' daughter Maria Theresa would succeed him.
Junkers Members of the Prussian aristocracy, a class formerly associated with political reaction and militarism
Pragmatic Sanction Issued by Charles VI of Austria in 1713 to assure Maria Theresa would gain the throne
Romanovs Russian dynasty, started with Michael Romanov after the Time of Troubles and lasted until 1917
Frederick William the Great Elector First man who made modern Pussia
Created by: tisdalecaleb