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Muscles

Mr. Mathena Chapter 8 Muscles Quiz

QuestionAnswer
fascia layers of fibrous connective tissue that separate an individual skeletal muscle from adjacent muscles and hold it in position
aponeuroses a sheet of connective tissue by which certain muscles are attached to adjacent muscles
myofibrils contractile fibers within muscle cells
myosin a protein that, with actin, contracts and relaxes muscle fibers
actin a protein that, with myosin, contracts muscle fibers
sarcomere the segment of a myofibril from one Z line to the next Z line
sarcoplasmic reticulum membranous network of channels and tubules within a muscle fiber corresponding to the endoplasmic reticulum of other cells
transverse tubules membranous channel that extends inward from a muscle fiber membrane and passes through the fiber
motor neuron a neuron that transmits impulses from the central nervous system to an effector
motor unit a motor neuron and its associated muscle fibers
motor end plate specialized portion of muscle fiber membrane at a neuromuscular junction
neuromuscular junction point of contact between a nerve cell and muscle cell
neurotransmitter chemical that an axon end secretes to stimulate a muscle fiber to contract or a neuron to fire an impulse
troponin and tropomyosin proteins that are part of the actin filament
ATPase enzyme that causes ATP molecules to release the energy stored in their terminal phosphate bonds
acetylcholine a type of neurotransmitter, which is a biochemical secreted at axon ends of many neurons, transmits nerve messages across synapsis
acetylcholinesterase an enzyme that catalyzes breakdown of acetylcholine
creatine phosphate a muscle biochemical that stores energy
myoglobin temporarily stores oxygen and reduces a muscle's requirement for a continuous blood supply during muscular contraction
oxygen debt the amount of oxygen required after physical exercise to convert accumulated lactic acid to glucose
all-or-none response phenomenon in which a muscle fiber completely contracts when it is exposed to a stimulus of threshold strength
summation increased force of contraction by a skeletal muscle fiber when twitches occur so rapidly that the next twtich occurs before the previous twitch relaxes
recruitment an increase in the number of motor units being activated
muscle tone even when a muscle appears to be at rest, a certain amount of sustained contraction is occurring in its fibers
multiunit smooth muscle the muscle fibers are separate rather than organized into sheets
visceral smooth muscle composed of sheets of spindle-shaped cells in close contact with one another
peristalsis rhythmic waves of muscular contraction in the walls of certain tubular organs; due to transmission of impulses from cell to cell and rhythmicity
origin the immovable end of the muscle
insertion movable end of muscle
prime mover (agonist) muscle responsible for a particular body movement
antagonist resist a prime movers action and cause the movement in the opposite direction
synergists muscles that contract and assist the prime mover
Created by: sissiloo