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Ch 12 Vocab part 2

ch 12 vocab part 2

DefinitionTerm
Immune System The body's defenders against these tiny but mighty enemies are two systems, simply called he innate and the adaptive defense systems. Together make up this.
Innate Defense System Also called the nonspecific defense system, responds immediately to protect the body from all foreign substances, whatever they are.
Non-Specific Defense System Also called the innate defense system.
Immunity The resulting highly specific resistance to disease is called immunity (immun=free).
Pathogens Harmful or disease-causing microorganisms.
Lysozyme Saliva and lacrimal fluid contain this, an enzyme that destroys bacteria.
Natural Killer Cells Roam the body in blood and lymph. A unique group of aggressive lymphocytes that can lyse and kill cancer cells, virus-infected body cells, and some other nonspecific targets well before the adaptive arm of the immune system is enlisted in the fight.
Inflammatory Response A nonspecific response that is triggered whenever body tissues are injured.
Histamine Cause blood vessels in the involved area to dilate and capillaries to become leaky. Activate pain receptors. Attract phagocytes and white blood cells to the area.
Kinins Cause blood vessels in the involved are to dilate and capillaries to become leaky. Activate pain receptors. Attract phagocytes and white blood cells to the area.
Diapedesis At the point where the chemical signal is the strongest, they flatten out and squeeze through the capillary walls.
Pus A mixture of dead or dying neutrophils, broken down tissue cells, and living and dead pathogens.
Phagocytes (fa’go-sitz”; phago = eat) in nearly every body organ. A phagocyte such as a macrophage or neutrophil, engulfs a foreign particle much the way an amoeba ingests a food particle.
Antimicrobial Proteins Enhance the innate defenses either by attacking microorganisms directly or by hindering their ability to reproduce. The most important of these are complement proteins and interferon.
Complement Refers to a group of at least 20 plasma proteins that circulate in the blood in an inactive state.
Complement Fixation Occurs when complement proteins bind to certain sugars or proteins (such as antibodies) on the foreign cells surface.
Membrane Attack Complex Produce lesions, complete with holes, in the foreign cell's surface.
Interferons Help defend cells that have not yet been infected by secreting small proteins. They diffuse to nearby cells and bind to their membrane receptors.
Fever Abnormally high body temperature, is a systemic response to invading microorganisms.
Pyrogens (pyro=fire), chemicals secreted by white blood cells and macrophages exposed to foreign cells or substances in the body.
Immune Response Immune system's response to threat. Involves tremendously increased internal nonspecific defenses (inflammatory responses to others) and also provides protection that is carefully targeted against specific antigens.
Humoral Immunity Also called- Antibody-mediated immunity, is provided by antibodies present in the body's "humors," or fluids.
Cellular Immunity Or- cell-mediated immunity because the protective factor is living cells.
Antigen Any substance capable of mobilizing our immune system and provoking an immune response.
Self-Antigens Non-reactive against "self" antigens under normal homeostatic conditions due to negative selection of T cells in the thymus and identifies and attacks only "non-self" invaders from modified/harmful substances present in the body in distressed conditions.
Hapten Or- incomplete antigen. Found in poison ivy, animal dander, and even in some detergents, hair dyes, cosmetics, and other commonly used household and industrial products.
Penicillin Reaction Provoking an immune response involves the binding of penicillin to blood proteins. Which causes this in some people.
B Lymphocytes Or B cells, produce antibodies and oversee humoral immunity.
T Lymphocytes Or T cells, are non-antibody-producing lymphocytes that constitute the cell-mediated arm of the adaptive defense system.
Immunocompetent Having a normal immune response.
Antigen-Presenting Cells (APCs) To engulf antigens and then present fragments of them, like signal flags, on their own surfaces where they can be recognized by T cells.