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Garde Manger

Growth of the guild, & what was a guild? A union, work assigned to various groups to developed training. The system starts at Apprenticeship, Journeyman, then Master of training.
KEEPING to EAT Storage room below ground level to keep foods cool.
Define Charcuterie Preparation of meats, sausages, pates by smoking, brining, curing. Devoted to prepared meat products
Define Monsieur Boulanger The founder of the worlds first Tavern keeper / restaurant in 1765
Define Brigade System Escoffier invented this organization of classical & modern kitchen tasks and assigned titles such as, Sous chef, Garde Manager, Roundsman, Saucier, Rotisseur.
What happened during the French Revolution in 1789? When the nobleman left France to avoid the guillotine, their cooking staffs, moved to work in fine restaurants.
In relation to food what happened in 1791? The Guild system was abolished.
Explain the evolution, Garde Manager? Evolved from preparing a variety of preserved foods, such as sausage and salami, to preparing a-la-carte and buffet lines. Now mostly cold foods and apps.
Explain what a Cold Emulsion sauce is 2 ingredients blended homogeneously like mayo. This is done in 2 phases, 1=dispersed phase then 2=continuous phase.
**Explain basic vinaigrette preparation To whip Vinegar w/ Oil, 3 parts oil to 1 part acid.
What is Salsa Uncooked, chunky, fruits or vegetables thats acid, tomato, onion, papaya.
What is Coulis? Pureeing raw or cooked fruits / vegetables liquid/sauce can be added to cream stock or infused.
What is a puree sauce When ingredients are blended smooth, fruit puree, ranch dressing. Interchangeable with Coulis.
What is dairy based sauce Sauces made w/ dairy & cheeses, like chip dip.
What are miscellaneous sauces Special sauces for special occasions, such as horseradish cocktail sauce.
What is basic preparation of a coating sauce Warm over hot water bath to a point of easy flow, cool over ice water batch to gelatin thickened, now the sauce starts clinging to side of the bowl.
What is the difference between Cold pressed, Extra Virgin & Virgin Olive oil? Cold press/Extra Virgin is the best, the first press the olives go through & at room temp and should not exceed 86 degrees w/ 1% or less of acid. Virgin Olive Oil is the second press & adds 3% or less of acid to the oils
What is basic Aioli Oil, Garlic, Egg yolks, / based on olive oil.
What are different kinds of cold soup Creamy-Tomato Clear-Consomme Vegetable-Vegetable Fruit-Melon Chilled-Gaspacho
What is herb Salata Latin term for salad / mixture of vega, fresh herbs, lettuce, and greens
What is a tossed salad When Greens, Veg & Toppings are tossed all together w/dressing
What is salad TIEDE? When salad or dressings are slightly warmed over low heat.
Explain in detail how to properly wash Salad Greens. Submerge cut greens in cold water, removing all trace of dirt. Place into salad spinner, spin dry, cover with damp cloth and plastic wrap.
What salad greens did Thomas Jefferson record being available in the market place. Cress, Endive, Sorrel,
What are some fruit that oxidize unless treated Apples, Bananas, Pears
How do you treat fruit so that it does not oxidize Lemon / lime, & water, can also be treated with fruit juices.
What is another name for Arugula ROCKET
What is a bound salad Salads mixed with heavy dressing such as Potato salad, Marconi salad. NOT A LEAFY GREENS
What is a COLD sandwich Deli Style sandwiches, lunch meats/cold cuts, cheeses
What is a Hot sandwich When sandwiches are served warm or hot, such as Hambergers
What is a Finger / tea sandwich A 2 bite sandwich, on fine grain bread w/the crust cut off, and precisely cut and or shaped.
What is an Open faced sandwich Only 1 slice of bread on the bottom of the sandwich
What is a Closed faced sandwich 2 slices of bread, top and bottom
What is a Club sandwich Many layers usually 3 slice of bread, also known as the Triple Decker
How was the sandwich invented John Montague did not want to leave the gambling table, so he asked for bread and meats be brought to him.
Who was John Montague He invented the first sandwich, and started a rage
Who was Louis P. Degouy and what did he do He worked at the Waldorf Astoria, and published the first Sandwich Manual in 1940
What is Osmosis When salt is applied to meat the fluid in the meat travels across the membrane in an effort to dilute the salt. This process kills harmful pathogens
What is Dehydration This means without water and is a form of preservation
What is Fermentation The breakdown of the compounds into gases and organic compounds
What is Denaturing Proteins When presering food the protein in the item changes. The strands of Protein lengthens or coil, open or close, recombine or dissolve, this will make the food firm
What is Saltpeter The first curing agent, BANNED in 1975
What are Sodium Nitrates Take longer to break down in cured foods Salt preservative that prevents BOTULISM. **used in foods that will NOT BE COOKED**
What are Sodium Nitrites They break down faster and are used in any cured items that will later be COOKED**
Explain Nitrosamine Controversy Potentially dangerous substance considered a carcinogens / also is in anything that is burnt
What is Prague Powder 2 This is your NAME BRAND curing powder. The right combination of nitrite and nitrate in order to be fully safe. Used in products that are dried for a long time
What is TCM Tinted Cure Mix, 94% table salt & 6% sodium nitrite
What are Cure Accelerators and give some example of them Together with nitrite enhanced color & flavors, Sodium, erythordate, ascorbate
What are sweeteners that are used in charcuterie Dextrose, sugar, corn syrup, honey & maple syrup
What is a Dry Cure This is when salt & sugar is used to season the meat
What is a Brine When dry cure is dissolved in boiling water, then chilled down before applying to meat, can also be injected
What does it mean when something is corned Corn is large chunks of salt, spread over the entire body of meat
What is overhauling When you cover the entire product with dry cure
What is brine injected This is when you pump or inject brine into meat using a syringe.
What is pellicle formation This is the Tacky skin that forms when meat is air dried
What is cold smoking, and at what temp A procedure used to give a smoked flavor to meat without cooking them, temp should be kept between 10-100 degrees
What is hot smoking, and at what temp A technique used when a fully cooked smoked item is desired, temps should be between 185-200
What is smoke roasting Method of roasting on a rack, over wood chips, temp should be over 250
What is pan smoking can be achieved with 2 disposable pans and a rack over sawdust and wood chips, **this is hard to control**
What does Drying mean This is when meats are tied and hung uncovered
What are confits Classic methods of preserving foods, poultry is simmered in their own fat, then packed in a crock covered in fat and aged for 1 week before serving
What are Rillettes Stew meat & bones, store in crock covered in fat, can be used on canapés
What is the recommended amount of TCM for 100lbs of meat .04% per 100lbs = 4 oz
What does Dextrose do It has the ability to mellow the harsh salt & increase moist as other sweeteners without adding the extreme sweetness
What does sausage mean Latin word Salsus = Salt, can be created from just about anything available.
What does Salsus mean Salt
What is Lucanica Italian sausage, and travel with the conquering Romans into ancient France
What is Fresh sausage Raw sausage that is typically pan fried, broiled, grilled, baked or braised
What is Insacatta Italian word = encased, Sausage
What role does FAT play in sausage making 30% of the sausage is fat and lends to the delicious factor, mostly pork fat.
What is Certified pork Pork is frozen for: 5 degrees for at least 20 days, or -10 degrees for 12 days
What is Cure Mixes These are mixes or blends that can be purchased, such as Prague Powder II
What role do Aromatics play in sausage making Used for taste can include wines, cheeses, zest and vega
What is Bulk Sausage The meat is Not encased, meat is left loose. Meduim to corse texture when ground.
What is Cooked Sausage Poached or steamed after shaping then sliced & served cold, grill, baking, pan frying
What is Smoked or Dried Sausage Dry sausage requires a bit of care and attention because of the time it takes to age it, and certified pork needs to be used.
What is 5:4:3 ratio 5=meat, 4=fat, 3=ice
Why is testing important and how do you do it To check for the right flavors
What are some examples of garnishing Cheese, veg, nuts, fruit
What is natural casings Intestine that come from an animal
What are synthetic casings These are manufactured casings
What is a Hank This is the length or bundle of casing = 100 yards
What are Hog casings **32-35m in size,** this will be on the TEST
What are Middles Large intestine from a COW
What is a Bung Cap This is the BEEF middle 17 - 20 lbs
TEXTURE CHART for making a good salad Composed salad Wheel from the top moving to the right: arm, hot = cold,frozen soft = crisp lean = rich, fatty cool = spicy sweet = sour, tart
What r the 4 basic forcemeat styles Straight, country, mousseline, and gratin
What type of cuts of meats are used to grind forcemeats Opt for well-exercised cuts, since they have a richer flavor than very tender cuts.
What is inlay? What is a random garnish? Inlay is when the garnish is carefully arranged in the middle of the forcemeat. Random is when the garnish is folded into the forcemeat
What is Mousseline? White meats or seafood lightened up with cream and eggs
What are terrines made and baked in? Forcemeat mixture baked in molds in a bain-marie made from Terra Cotta / Earthware, stainless steel, aluminum, ceramic and enameled cast iron with a tight fitting lid
What is a roulade? A slice of meat or fish rolled around stuffing
How are terrines served? sliced and served cold
What can you do to Mousseline forcemeat's to be sure a very smooth product? 1) Push ground meat through a sieve 2) You can add extra heavy cream
What types of milk are used in cheese making? cow milk, goat milk, sheep's milk, buffalo milk
What does Pasta Filata mean? Means Spun Curds or Spun Paste. Italian style of cheese, mozzarella, provolone, can be made from buffalo.
Is cheese potentially hazardous? Yes, but the use of Pasteurized milk and aging for a minimum of sixty day kills harmful bacteria.
What does Rennet do It curdles the milk, enzyme used to make cheese.
What type of cheese is known as granas because of their granular texture Grating cheeses like Parmigiano & Romano
What is cheese curd? Small chunks of cheese solids that have been separated from Natural Whey present in milk.
What is the cheddaring processes? A step used during cheese making to give cheese a dense, layered texture.
How do Appetizers and Hors d'oeuvre differ Hors d'oeuvres is a much smaller amount of food only 1 or to 2 bites, finger food. Appetizers are served as the first course of a meal.
What does the term hors d'oeuvre translate to? "out side the meal" , food items that precedes the meal
Are appetizers small portions of very flavorful items, meant just to take enough edge off the appetite to permit thorough enjoyment of an entree? yes, per the book pg 444
Eggs of the highest quality are prepared by a method with little or no salt? Yes, salt pulls out the protein.
The term gratin means? Forcemeat that has been seared and cooled before the grinding process.
What is the basic source of forcemeat's structure of primary binding PANADA, made up of flour or bread crumbs, egg whites & cream.
The proper ratio for a mousseline forcemeat is? 1:4 ratio = 1 lb white meat, 1tsp salt, 1 egg, 8 oz cream
Which forcemeat is made from seared meat Gratin
A tub of rolled aluminum foil inserted into a pate en croute in order to keep it vented is called? Chimney
What is savory cold dish made from boned poultry sewn back into the birds skin, poached in a rich stock, and preserved in the natural jelly is a? Galantine, pg 316
In 1851, the first real cheese factory in America was established by whom, in what town and state. Jesse Williams in Rome, New York
It is believed that the first cheese were made from what type of milk goat & cow milk, pg367
When milk coagulates, it generally forms a soft mass of curd and non coagulated portion of milk is called? Whey
What type of cheese is ricotta Whey cheese
Overripe soft-ripened cheeses can be identified by what? To soft, weepy under the rind, the center could be ozzy.
Know 3 types of Blue Veined cheese Blue Cheese, Roquefort, Stilton (containing 30% to 50% moisture)
How much should the chef trim from a cheese that becomes unnaturally moldy? Trim off 1/2 inch, past the mold
What does pasteurized milk do when making cheese? It makes the cheese safe, kills harmful bacteria, but also takes away some flavor
Where were cheeses originally aged under conditions perfect for ripening to occur? Caves
Parmigiano-Reggiano is an example of what type of cheese? Granas
Know the three forms of preparing and presenting hors d'oeuvre? Composed horsd'oeuvre, A'la Carte menu, Tasting menus
What is a composed hors d'oevre, is it a small open-faced sandwich? Composed hors d'oevers are built from 2 or more components. A small open-faced sandwich is called a CANAPE also considered an hors d'oever.
Basic stages in cheese production 1. Inoculation 2. Coagulation 3. Cutting curds 4. Cooking curds 5. Hooping curds 6. Pressing 7. Salting 8. Ripening 9. Evaluating development
What is mustard condiment made from mustard seed, viniger & seasonings
What is condiment Sauce like creation, serves as spread, dips or dressings
What is chutney Sweet & sour condiment, often fruit based
What is a relish Can be used as a dip, like a a salsa
What is compote Fruit cooked down into a syrup
What is the origin of ketchup France & East Asia, = pg 575
What are fried chips, how are they made & made from what Thin sliced vegetables, frying in oil until crispy, potatoes, beets or artichokes.
What are icebox crackers Prepared, rolled, chilled then sliced and baked. Much like a cookie.
What are infused oils When you add another flavor to the oil, using herbs and spices, fruits or vegetables
What is the starting point for developing a plan for a buffet Concept and them, then guest count
What type of clams are smaller and more tender then top neck clams Cherrystones
Are clams generally served raw Yes
Are shrimp, mussels and crab served raw No
What type of mussel has a higher ratio of meat-to-shell Cultivated mussels
What are the best type of oysters, clams and mussels to use to avoid general risks Cultivated / Farmed
What is a gross piece used for and what is its purpose "Big Piece" a large slice used for display
What are the quality indicators for oysters They don't open easily, meat is moist & plump, & smells fresh
Examples of food or action stations this is where the chef prepares food as in omelet stations, pasta stations and raw bars
What are several types of crabs King, Snow, Stone, Blue
Prior to service what should you do to shellfish Scrub and hold on ice, 35 to 40 degrees, for no more then 2 to 3 days
What type of line holds more food then a staring line, with more contemporary look Satellite Stations
Which groups is given credit for the table cloth The Roman Empire
What types of foods are good for action stations Show case items, like canapés or desserts
What kind of seafood come with a tag stating point of origin ALL raw shellfish must come with tags
Explain some general guidelines of how to arrange items on a line in a buffet situation Buffet should make it easy for guests to access the food. Lines should not block entrances, emergency exits, or doors. Avoid placing lines to close together
Explain the practical considerations of the placement of lines in buffet situations You want the guest to move quickly through the buffet without blocking doorways or the guest chairs.
Created by: MArrowood