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Ch. 12 Part II Vocab


Immune System The body’s defenders against these tiny but mighty enemies are two systems, simply called the innate and the adaptive defense systems. Together they make up the immune system.
Innate Defense System Also called the non-specific defense system, responds immediately to protect the body from all foreign substances, whatever they are.
Non-Specific Defense System Response immediately to protect the body from all foreign substances, whatever they are.
Immunity The ability of the body to resist many agents that can cause disease; resistance to disease.
Pathogens Disease-causing microorganism.
Lysozyme An enzyme found in seat, saliva, and tears that is capable of destroying certain kinds of bacteria.
Natural Killer Cells Roam the body in blood and lymph. They are a unique group of aggressive lymphocytes that can lyse and kill cancer cells, virus-infected body cells, and some other non-specific targets well before the adaptive arm of the immune system is enlisted in the f
Inflammatory Response A physiological response of the body to tissue injury; includes dilation of blood vessels and increased blood vessel permeability.
Histamine A substance that causes vasodilation and increased vascular permeability.
Kinins Group of polypeptides that dilate arterioles, increase vascular permeability, and induce pain.
Diapedesis The passage of blood cells through intact vessel walls into the tissues.
Pus The fluid product of inflammation composed of white blood cells, the debris of dead cells, and a thin fluid.
Phagocytes Cell capable of engulfing and digesting particles of cells harmful to the body.
Antimicrobial Proteins Enhance the innate defenses either by attacking microorganisms directly or by hindering their ability to reproduce.
Complement A group of plasma proteins that normally circulate in inactive forms; when activated by complement fixation , causes lysis of foreign cells and enhances phagocytosis and inflammation.
Complement Fixation Occurs when complement proteins bind to certain sugars or proteins on the foreign cell’s surface.
Membrane Attack Complex Produce lesions, complete with holes, in the foreign cell’s surface. These lesions allow water to rush into the cell, causing it to burst.
Interferons Although the virus-infected cells in an infected person can do little to save themselves, they help defend cells that have not yet been infected by secreting small proteins called interferons.
Fever Abnormally high body temperature, is a systemic response to invading microorganisms.
Pyrogens Chemicals secreted by white blood cells and macrophages exposed to foreign cells or substances in the body.
Immune Response Antigen-specific defenses mounted by activated lymphocytes.
Humoral Immunity Also called antibody-mediated immunity, weak bond in which a hydrogen atom forms a bridge between two electron-hungry atoms. An important intramolecular bond.
Cellular Immunity or cell-mediated immunity, Immunity conferred by lymphocytes called T cells; also called cell-mediated immunity.
Antigen Any substance-including toxins, foreign proteins, or bacteria-that, when introduced to the body, is recognized as foreign and activated the immune system.
Self-Antigens Do not trigger an immune response in us, they are strongly antigenic to other people.
Hapten or -incomplete antigen, the troublesome small molecule.
Penicillin Reaction Perhaps the most dramatic and familiar example of a drug hapten’s provoking an immune response involves the binding of penicillin to blood proteins
B Lymphocytes or B cells, lymphocytes that oversee humoral immunity; their descendants differentiate into antibody-producing plasma cells; also called B lymphocytes
T Lymphocytes or T cells, Lymphocytes that mediate cellular immunity; include helper, cytotoxic, regulatory, and memory cells. Also called T lymphocytes.
Immunocompetent The ability of the body’s immune cells to recognize specific antigens; reflects the presence of plasma membrane bound receptors.
Antigen -Presenting Cells (APCs) In immunity is to engulf antigens and then present fragments of them, like signal flags, on their own surfaces where they can be recognized by T cells.



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