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NOCTI Culinary Arts

Study Guide

4 parts of salad base. body. garnish. dressing
barding Barding is a technique for cooking meats where the meat is wrapped in a layer of fat before cooking it.
basting a technique for moistening the surface of roasting meat, roasted chicken or other roasted items, with pan drippings, stock, butter or some other liquid
Caramelization browning of sugar, a process used extensively in cooking for the resulting nutty flavor and brown color. As the process occurs, volatile chemicals are released, producing the characteristic caramel flavor
carry-over cooking? food retains heat and continues to cook even after being removed from the source of heat.
concasse' "to crush or grind", is a cooking term meaning to rough chop any ingredient, usually vegetables
coulis form of thick sauce made from puréed and strained vegetables or fruits. A vegetable coulis is commonly used on meat and vegetable dishes, and it can also be used as a base for soups or other sauces.
cream fatty part of milk: a high-fat liquid product separated from milk
Define Blanching • cooking in an item briefly in boiling water or hot fat before finishing or storing it; Define shocking • boil an item and quickly take off heat and put into ice bath
Define combination cooking methods : • Braising: cook method in which food is browned, then covered and simmered with a small amount of liquid until food is tender • stewing: sear bite-sized pieces of food, then cover them in liquid and simmer in a covered pot
Define knife cut julienne • 1/8 by 1/8 and 2inches
degalze to deglaze a pan means to add liquid, such as stock or wine, to the pan to loosen and dissolve
degrease To skim, and / or to remove the fatty film that forms over soups, consommés
depouillage cleaning of a sauce is the most important process in building a sauce. Depouillage as it is applied to sauces, is the removal of all fat and impurities from the flour and stock in the sauce.
dollop small gob
drupe drupe is an indehiscent fruit in which an outer fleshy part surrounds a shell of hardened endocarp with a seed inside
egg wash beaten eggs sometimes mixed with another liquid, usually water or milk, which is brushed onto the surface of a pastry before baking.
emulsion mixture of two or more liquids that are normally immiscible (nonmixable or unblendable)
en papillote (French for "in parchment"), or al cartoccio in Italian, is a method of cooking in which the food is put into a folded pouch or parcel and then baked
enzymatic browning chemical process involving polyphenol oxidase or other enzymes that create melanins, resulting in a brown color
ethylene gas naturally occurring hormone in gaseous form that triggers ripening in fruit.
fermentation metabolic process that converts sugar to acids, gases and/or alcohol
five types of salad • Fruit salad • Veggie salad • Meat salad • Pasta salad
freestone fruit containing a pit, also referred to as a stone, that does not become attached or cling to the pulpy
fumet cooking stock: a strongly-flavored stock obtained from cooking fish, meat, or vegetables
gelatin Gelatin or gelatine is a translucent, colorless, brittle, flavorless solid substance, derived from collagen obtained from various animal by-products.
glace Demi-glace is a rich brown sauce in French cuisine used by itself or as a base for other sauces. The term comes from the French word glace, which, used in reference to a sauce, means icing or glaze
How many grams in one ounce? 28 grams in one ounce
jus lie referring to meat juice that has been lightly thickened with a either arrowroot or cornstarch.
knife cut brunois • This is accomplished by stacking leaves, rolling them tightly, and then slicing the leaves perpendicular to the roll.
knife cut chiffonade • This is accomplished by stacking leaves, rolling them tightly, and then slicing the leaves perpendicular to the roll.
knife cut tourne An oblong-shaped cut for vegetables such as carrots, potatoes or squash that provides a distinctive and consistent appearance to the food item being served. When preparing a Tournée Cut, the vegetable is trimmed to a length of approximately 2 inches
lard pig fat in both its rendered and unrendered forms. Lard was commonly used in many cuisines as a cooking fat or shortening, or as a spread similar to butter.
legumes plant in the family Fabaceae, or the fruit or seed of such a plant. Legumes are grown agriculturally, primarily for their food grain seed, for livestock forage and silage, and as soil-enhancing green manure.
List the five volume measures from smallest to largest and include number of ounces for each cups- 8 pints-16 quart-32 half gallon-64gallon-128
mandolin cooking utensil used for slicing and for cutting juliennes ; with suitable attachments, it can make crinkle-cuts
many ounces in one pound 16
many tablespoons in one ounce 2
marbling white flecks and streaks of fat within the lean sections of meat
marinade liquid solution that you soak foods, particularly meats in before cooking
mayonnaise ingredients stable emulsion of oil, egg yolk and either vinegar or lemon juice
mousse prepared food that incorporates air bubbles to give it a light and airy texture
mousseline a light sauce, made by adding whipped cream or egg whites to hollandaise sauce
nappe means to lightly coat food with a sauce so it completely covers the food with a thin even layer.
parchment paper paper that is used as a disposable non-stick surface for baking
pesto sauce originating in Genoa in the Liguria region of northern Italy, and traditionally consists of crushed garlic, basil, and European pine nuts blended with olive oil, Parmigiano Reggiano, and Fiore Sardo.
phyllo dough dough of paper-thin sheets of unleavened flour dough separated by a thin film of butter
pilaf dish in which rice is cooked in a seasoned broth.
proofing this is the term meaning to rise or make rise. There are three types: physical, chemical and natural.
quenelle mixture of creamed fish, or meat, sometimes combined with breadcrumbs, with a light egg binding. It is usually poached
ramekin a small glazed ceramic or glass serving bowl used for the preparation and serving of various food dishes
remouillage weak stock made by resimmering bones that have been used to make stock once already.
RENDER uses a low heat to melt fat away from any connective tissues
sear cooked at high temperature so a caramelized crust forms
silverskin A white and silvery colored connective tissue attached to various pieces of meat.
slurry mixture of cornstarch and liquid (usually water or stock) used to thicken a sauce or soup.
Stock - definition • Flavored water preparation and forms the basis of many dishes, particularly soups and sauces.
temper stabilize certain products
terrine describe both a piece of kitchenware referred to as a "mold" and a type of food dish that is made in the mold, which is typically made of earthenware or china
trussing To tie meat or poultry with a string
vinaigrette dressing Red wine and mustard based vinaigrette dressing
What are the five tastes? Bitterness, Sourness, Sweetness, Saltiness, and Umami
What is a bouquet garni and what are the five ingredients? • Parsley, thyme, bay leaf, rosemary and tarragon.
What is an Onion Piquet? • A traditional French culinary technique • Bay leaves, onions and a whole clove
What is a roux? What are the ingredients? What are the three types of a roux • Substance created by cooking wheat flour and fat (traditionally butter).
• Base for sauce: a mixture of flour and fat that is cooked briefly and used as the thickening base of a sauce or soup • White, blond and brown • A traditional French culinary technique
What is clarified butter? What two parts do we eliminate? • butter made clear by heating and removing the sediment of milk solids
What is Mirepoix and the ratio of the ingredients • Ratio of 8 ounces of chopped onions to 4 ounces each of chopped carrots and celery for a basic mirepoix, so they are using a 2: 1: 1 ratio by weight. • a mixture of chopped celery, onions, and carrots
What is the most common liquid used for a stock? • Water
zest food ingredient that is prepared by scraping or cutting from the outer, colorful skin of unwaxed citrus fruits
zester cooking utensil for removing zest from citrus fruit
Created by: MArrowood