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Chapter 6 muscle voc

anatomy/physiology

contractibility ability of skeletal muscles to shorten with force
excitability capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus
extensibility ability to be stretched
elasticity ability to recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched
epimysium skeletal muscle surrounded by a connective tissue
fascia connected tissue located outside the epimysium
perimysium loose connective tissue
fibers single muscle cells
endomysium connective tissue sheath
myofibrils threadlike structure that extends from one end of the fiber to the other
actin myofilaments thin mylofilaments
myosin myofilaments thick mylofilaments
sarcromeres basic structural and functional unity of the muscle
resting membrane potential the charge difference across the membrane
action potential brief reversal back of the charge
motor neurons nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers
neuromuscular junction each branch that connects to the muscle
synapse branch that connects to the muscle near the center of the cell
motor unit single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates
presynaptic terminal enlarged nerve terminal
synaptic cleft space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell
postsynaptic terminal muscle fiber
synaptic vesicles secrete a neurotransmitter
acetylcholine secretion of a nuerotransmitter
acetylcholinesterase enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine
sliding filament mechanism the sliding of actin mylofilaments past myosin myofilaments during contraction
muscle twitch a contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus
threshold the level to which a stimulus much reach for a muscle fiber to respond
all-or-none response point in which the muscle fiber will contract maximally
lag phase time between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of a contraction
contraction phase time in which the muscle contracts
relaxation phase time in which the muscle relaxes
tetany muscle remains contracted without relaxing
recruitment increase in number of motor units being activated
ATP adenosine triphosphate
ADP adenosine diphosphate
creatine phosphate a high end molecule
anaerobic respiration without oxygen
aerobic respiration with oxygen
oxygen debt amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose
muscle fatigue results when ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than it can be produced
isometric length of muscle does not change, but the amount of tension increases during the contraction process
isotonic amount of tension produced by the muscle is constant during contraction
muscle tone refers to constant tension produced by muscles of the body for long periods of time
fast twitch fibers contract quickly and fatigue quickly
slow twitch fibers contract more slowly and are more resistant to fatigue
origin the most stationary end of the muscle
insertion the end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement
belly portion of muscle between the origin and the insertion
synergists muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements
antagonists muscles that work in opposition to one another
prime mover muscle that plays the major role in accomplishing the desired movement
occipitofrontalis raises the eyebrows
orbicularis occuli closes the eyelids and causes "crows feet"
orbicularis oris puckers the lips
buccinator flattens the cheeks
zygomaticus smiling muscle
levator labii superioris sneering
depressor anguli oris frowning
intrinsic tongue muscle changes the shape of the tongue
extrinsic tongue muscle moves the tongue
sternocleidomastoid lateral neck and prime mover. rotates and abducts the head
thoracic muscles muscles that move the thorax
diaphragm accomplishes quiet breathing. dome shaped muscle that aids in breathing
trapezius rotates scapula
serratus anterior pulls scapula anteriorly
pectoralis major adducts and flexes the arm
latissimus dorsi medially rotates, adducts, and powerfully extends arm
deltoid attaches the humerus to the scapula and clavicle, and is major abductor to the upper limb
triceps brachii extends the forearm
biceps brachii flexes the forearm
brachialis flexes forearm
flexor carpi flexes the wrist
extensor carpi extends the wrist
flexor digitorum flexes the fingers
extensor digitorum extends the fingers
Created by: MissJaxon7