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Stack #190477

Medical Terminology II-Digestive System

QuestionAnswer
without symptoms asymptomatic
elimination of feces from the gastrointestinal tract through the rectum defecation
upper duodenal area just beyond the pylorus duodenal bulb
instrument consisting of a rigid or flexible fiberoptic tube and optical system for observing the inside of a hollow organ or cavity endoscope
pertaining to a gland that secretes outwardly through excretory ducts to the surface of an organ or tissue or into a vessel exocrine
easily broken or pulverized friable
enzyme secreted in the stomach that begins the digestion of proteins pepsin
having pinpoint punctures or depressions on the surface; marked with dots punctate
tortuous dilations of a vein varices
circular muscle constricting an orifice, such as the pyloric sphincter around the opening of the stomach into the duodenum sphincter
mouth or/o and stomat/o
tongue gloss/o and lingu/o
cheek bucc/o
lip cheil/o and labi/o
teeth dent/o and odont/o
gum(s) gingiv/o
saliva, salivary gland sial/o
esophagus esophag/o
pharynx (throat) pharyng/o
stomach gastr/o
pylorus pylor/o
duodenum (first part of small intestine) duoden/o
intestine (usually small intestine) enter/o
jejunum (second part of small intestine) jejun/o
ileum (third part of small intestine) ile/o
appendix append/o and appendic/o
colon col/o and colon/o
sigmoid colon sigmoid/o
rectum rect/o
anus, rectum proct/o
anus an/o
liver hepat/o
pancreas pancreat/o
bile vessel cholangi/o
bile, gall chol/e
gallbladder cholecyst/o
vomit -emesis
abnormal condition (produced by something specific) -iasis
enlargement -megaly
appetitie -orexia
digestion -pepsia
swallowing, eating -phagia
meal -prandial
discharge, flow -rrhea
through, across dia-
around peri-
under, below sub-
lack or loss of appetite, resulting in the inability to eat anorexia
inflammation of the appendix, usually due to obstruction or infection appendicitis
accumulation of serous fluid in the abdomen ascites
rumbling or gurgling noises that are audible at a distance and caused by passage of gas throught the liquid contents of the intestine borborygmus
general lack of nutrition and wasting occurring in the course of a chrnic disease or emotional disturbance cachexia
presence or formation of gallstones in the gallbladder or common bile duct cholelithiasis
chronic inflammation, usually of the ileum, but possible affecting any protion of the intestinal tract Crohn disease, regional enteritis
chronic, irreversible, degenerative disease of the liver cirrhosis
spasm in any hollow or tubular soft organ accompanied by pain, especially in the colon colic
act of swollowing deglutition
inflammation of the intestine, especially the colon, possibly caused by ingesting water or food containing chemical irritants, bacteria, protozoa, or parasites, that results in bloody diarrhea dysentery
epigastric discomfort felt after eating; also called indigestion dyspepsia
inability or difficulty in swallowing; also called aphagia dysphagia
producing gas from the stomach, usually with a characteristic sound; also called belching eructation
fecal concretion fecalith
gas in the GI tract; expelling of air from a body orifice, especially the anus flatus
backflow of gastric contents into the esophagus due to a malfunction of the sphincter muscle at the inferior portion of the esophagus gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
offensive or "bad" breath halitosis
vomitting of blood hematemesis
symptom complex marked by abdominal pain and altered bowel function (typically constipation, diarrhea, or alternating constipation and diarrhea) for which no organic cause can be determined; also called spastic colon irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
intestinal obstruction; also called severe constipation obstipation
symptom complex of the small intestine characterized by the impaired passage of nutrients, minerals, or fluids through intestinal villi into the blood or lymph malabsorption syndrome
passage of dark-colored, tarry stools, due toe the presence of blood altered by intestinal juices melena
formation of white spots or patches on the mucous membrane of the tongue, lips, or cheek caused primarily by irritation oral leukoplakia
progressive, wavelike movement that occurs involuntarily in hollow tubes of the body, especially the GI tract peristalsis
stricture or narrowing of the pyloric orifice, possibly due to excessive thickening of the pyloric sphincter (circular muscle of the pylorus) pyloric stenosis
backward flowing, as in the return of solids or fluids to the mouth from the stomach or the backward flow of blood through a defective heart valve regurgitation
passage of fat in large amounts in the feces due to failure to digest and absorb it steatorrhea
visual examination of a cavity or canal using a specialized lighted instrument called an endoscope endoscopy
endoscopy of the esophagus (esophagoscopy), stomaach (gastroscopy), and duodenum (duodenoscopy) upper GI endoscopy
endoscopy of the colon (colonoscopy), sigmoid colon (sigmoidoscopy), and rectum and anal canal (proctoscopy) lower GI endoscopy
panel of blood tests that identify the specific virus-hepatitis A (HAV), hepatitis B (HBV), or hepatitis C (HCV)-causing hepatitis by testing serum using antibodies to each of these antigens hepatitis panel
tests involving measurement of the levels of certain enzymes, bilirubin, and various proteins liver function tests (LFT's)
measurement of the level of bilirubin in the blood serum bilirubin
microbiological procedure in which microorganisms in feces are grown on media or nutrient material to identify specific pathogens stool culture
applying a substance called guaiac to a stool sample to detect the presence of blood in the feces; also called Hemoccult (trade name of a modified guaiac test) stool guaiac
radiographic examination of the rectum and colon following enema administration of barium sulfate (contrast medium) into the rectum; also called lowere GI series barium enema
radiographic examination of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine following oral administration of barium sulfate (contrast medium); also called esophagram and upper GI series barium swallow
radiographic images taken of the gallbladder after administration of a contrast material containing idodine, usually in the form of a tablet cholecystography
imaging technique achieved by rotating an x-ray emitter around the area to be scanned and measuring the intensity of transmitted rays from different angles; formerly called computerized axial tomography computed tomography (CT) scan
endoscopic procedure that provides radiographic visualization of the bile and pancreatic ducts endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancareatography (ERCP)
radiographic examination of the structure of the bile ducts percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography
radiologic examination of the salivary glands and ducts sialography
image produced by using high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) and displaying the reflected "echoes" on a monitor (A computer analyzes the reflected echos and converts them into an image on a video monitor.); also called ultrasound, sonography, echo,.. ultrasonography (US)
ultrasound visualization of the abdominal aorta, liver, gallbladder, bile ducts, pancreas, kidneys, ureters, and bladder abdominal ultrasonography (US)
representative tissue sample removed from a body site for microscopic examination, usually to establish a diagnosis biopsy
use of a large-bore needle to remove a core of liver tissue for histological examination liver biopsy
insertion of a masogastric tube throught the nose into the stomach to relieve gastric distention by removing gas, gastric secretions, or food; to insill meds, food, or fluids; or to obtain a speciment for lab analysis nasogastric intubation
surgical joining of two ducts, vessels, or bowel segments to allow flow from one to another anastomosis
surgical connection of the ileum and rectum after total colectomy, as is sometimes performed in the treatment of ulcerative colitis ileorectal anastomosis
surgical connection of two portions of the intestines; also called enteroenterostomy intestinal anastomosis
creation of an opening of some portion of the colon through the abdominal wall to its outside surface in order to divert fecal flow to a colostomy bag colostomy
procedure for eliminating a stone within the urinary system or gallbladder by crushing the stone surgically or using a noninvasive method, such as ultrasonic shock waves, to shatter it lithotripsy
use of shock waves as a noninvasive method to break up stones in the gallbladder or biliary ducts extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL)
exision of a polyp polypectomy
incision of the longitudinal and circular muscles of the pylorus; used to treat hypertrophic pyloric stenosis pyloromyotomy
aspiration biopsy cytology ABC
alkaline phosphatase alk phos
alanine amiotransferase (elevated in liver and heart disease); formerly SGPT ALT
angiotensin sensitivity test AST
barium Ba
barium enema BaE
bowel movement BM
computed tomography CT
computed tomography scan CT scan, CAT scan
esophagogastroduodenoscopy EGD
endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography ERCP
gallbladder GB
gallbladder series GBS
gastroesophageal reflux GER
gastroesophageal reflux disease GERD
gastrointestinal GI
hepatitis A virus HAV
hepatitis B virus HBV
hepatitis C virus HCV
hepatitis D virus HDV
hepatitis E virus HEV
irritable bowel syndrome IBS
nasogastric NG
peptic ulcer disease PUD
rule out R/O
before meals ac
twice a day bid
nothing by mouth npo
after meals (postprandial) pc, pp
by mouth (per os) po
as required prn
every morning qam, qm
every hour qh
every w hours q2h
four times a day qid
every other day qod**
every night qpm, qn
immediately stat
three times a day tid
Created by: Kcompleta