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Chapter 13

The Respiratory System

Alveol/o Alveolus, air sac
bronch/o bronchial tube
bronchi/o Bronchus
bronchil/o bronchiole
capn/o carbon dioxide
cyan/o blue
laryng/o larynx
lob/o lobe
nas/o nose
pharyng/o pharynx
phren/o diaphragm
pneum/o, pneumon/o air
pulmon/o lung
rhin/o nose
sinus/o sinus
spir/o breathing
thorac/o chest
trache/o trachea
Respiration as a system refers to the movement of gases into and out of the lungs, and the exchange of gases between the alveoli and the capillaries and tissues in the body
Respiration System Major Organs and Structure Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and lungs Structure- Diaphragm, sinuses and nasal cavity
Functions of the Respiratory System gas exchange, acid-base balance, speech, sense of smell, creation f pressure gradients necessary to circulate blood and lymph
Upper Respiratory Tract (Anatomy in the Head and Neck) Nasal cavity- nose- nasopharynx- oropharynx and laryngopharynx- larynx
Nose The nasal bones and nasal cartilages shape the nose Nares= Nostils
Nasal Cavity The mucous membrane of the nasal cavity warm and moisturize the air and remove debris Nasal conchae provide extra surface area Vestibule block debris from entering the respiratory tract
Pharynx Composed of Nasopharynx, oropharynx and laryngopharynx The epithelial tissue varies in each part of the phanx based on the materials that travel thru each area
Larynx Cartilaginous box that contains the vocal box Thyroid, Arytenoid, and Corniculate Cartilage Muscles in the larynx move cartilage that allow the vocal cods to vibrate to produce sound
Epiglottis Blocks the entrance to the trachea when swallowing
Lower Respiratory Tract (Anatomy in the Thoracic Cavity) Trachea- main bronchi- bronchial tree- alveoli
Trachea Has 18 to 20 C-shaed cartilages that hold it pen for the easy passage of air Splits to form the main bronchi The inner lining is ciliated to tap debris from accumulating in the lungs
Lungs and Bronchial Tree Each main bonchus enters a lung and then further divides to form the bronchial tree Lobar bronchi go to each local of the lung
Lungs The left lung has 2 lobes and the right lung has 3 due to the position of the heart
Bronchioles Have smooth muscle in their walls and lobules
Alveoli Small air sacs in the lung branches go to Have walls of simple squamous cells and great alveoli cells that produce surfactant
Surfactant Reduces the surface tension of water so that alveoli do not collapse
Respiratory Membrane Composed of the thin layer of water with surfactant in the alveoli, the single squamous call alveolar wall, and the single call capillary wall
Inspiration (Breathing in) Intercostal muscles and the diaphragm's contracting to increase the volume of the thoracic cavity, thereby decreasing pressure Air flows due to pressure gradients Pleural membranes cause the lung to expand with the thoracic cavity
Normal Inspiration (Pressure wants to equalize) contraction of the intercostal muscles and diaphragm Forced inspiration involves additional muscles, sternocleidomastoid and pectoralis minor
Normal Expiration (Breathing out) Relaxation of the intercostal muscles and diaphragm Forced expiration is caused by muscle contraction
Measurements of Pulmonary Function (Spirometer) Used to measure lung volume and capacities
Tidal Volume(TV) The amount of air moved in a normal breath (inspired or expired) at rest. normal 500ml
Residual Volume (RV) The amount of air in the lungs that cannot be moved, normal 1,200ml
Total Lung Capacity (TLC) Maximum amount of air the lung can hold, normal 5,800ml TLC= VC+RV
Composition of Air Air is a mixture of gases including nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor
Partial Pressure The amount of pressure an individual gas contributes to the total pressure of the mixture
Gas Exchange Happens between the alveoli and the capillaries in the lung and between the capillaries and the tissues of the body
Gas Exchange Gases diffuse across membranes because of a concentration gradient until the concentration on both sides of the membrane are equal
Inspired VS Expired Air Inspired air has more oxygen and less carbon dioxide
Factors that Influence Gas Exchange Concentration of the Gases, Membrane Area, Membrane Thickness and Solubility of the Gas
Concentration of the Gases Creates a gradient for diffusion
Membrane Area The greater the membrane area, the greater the opportunity for diffusion
Membrane Thickness Thickness membranes make gas exchange more difficult
Solubility of the Gas Must be soluble in water to diffuse across the respiratory membrane
Regulation of Respiration It is controlled by respiratory centers in the medulla oblongata: Stretch receptors, pons, the cerebral cortex and chemorecptors drivers of respiration pH, CO2, and O2 in that order
Information to the Medulla comes from what sources Stretch receptors in the thoracic wall react to the degree of chest expansions- Hering Breuer Reflex Proprioceptors in the muscles and joints alert the medulla when greater demand is needed
Information to the Medulla comes from what sources Pontine respiratory group in the pons receive input from other brain areas to adjust respiration Cerebral Cortex can override reflexes- holdin breath Peripheral chemoreceptors monitor levels of gases in the blood- CO2 is the main controller
Respiratory centers are sensitive to changes in CO2 and H+ Increase in CO2 and H+ causes respiratory center to increase rate and dept of breathing. This causes loss to CO2 and H+ and lowers levels to normal
Gas Transport Most of the oxygen is transported in the blood by hemoglobin as oxyhemoglobin Most of Carbon Dioxide is transported in the blood as Bicarbonate Ions
Hemoglobin Functions to carry oxygen from the lungs to the tissues and to carry hydrogen ions from the tissues to the lungs
Ventilation-Perfusion Coupling (self regulator) Lung Perfusion and Alveolar Ventilation
Lung Perfusion (blood flow to alveoli) Alveolar capillaries constrict where the partial pressure of oxygen is low so blood is diverted to where the partial pressure of oxygen is high
Alveoli Ventilation (air flow to alveoli) Bronchioles dilate if partial pressure of carbon dioxide increases Bronchioles constrict if the partial pressure of carbon dioxide decreases
Acidosis pH of the blood is less the 7.35 Medulla Oblongata stimulates hyperventilation (increased respiratory rate) to blow off CO2 in the blood to raise the pH
Alkalosis pH of the blood is greater the 7.45 Medulla Oblongata stimulates hypoventilation (decreased respiratory rate) to keep CO2 in the blood to lower the pH
Hypercapnia Increased carbon dioxide in the blood Causes the pH to fall in the body fluids
Created by: myrnasGirl3



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