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The Excretory

Urinary System

Azot/o Nitrogen
Cyst/o Urinary Bladder
Glomerulo Glomerulus
Nephr/o Kidney
Pyel/o Renal Pelvis
Ren/o Kidney
Ur/o Urinary Tract, Urine
Ureter/o Ureter
Urethr/o Urethra
Excretion Is removal of metabolic wastes from the body
Function of Excretory System Removal of metabolic waste Maintenance of the body's fluid, electrolyte balance and acid base balance Regulation of blood pressure
Organs that remove Metabolic Waste The skin, lungs, liver and kidneys
Metabolic Waste(Nitrogenous Waste) Ammonia, urea, uric acid and creatinine
Ammonia Produce from the breakdown of amino acid Converted by the liver to urea, a less toxic waste
Urea Most common nitrogenous waste
Uric Acid Formed from the breakdown of nucleic acids
Creatinine Formed from the breakdown of creatine phosphate
Role of Kidney Excreation of waste thru Urine Regulation of blood volume Delivery of urine from the body Control of urine production
Kidneys Function in Multiple Systems Vitamin D synthesis= Skeletal System Renin and Erythropoietin= Cardiovascular and Endocrine System Elimination of waste= Excretory System
Renal Capsule Protect kidney
Perirenal Fat Capsule Protect kidney
Renal Fascia Anchors the kidney to the posterior muscle wall of the body's abdomen
Each Kidney has 3 Layers Renal capsule, renal cortex and renal medulla (Pyramids are located in renal medulla)
Calyces Collect urine from the pyramids and deliver it to thr renal pelvis
Renal Sinus The space occupied by the renal artery, renal vein and renal pelvis
Anatomy of Nephron Has 2 basic part, the Renal corpuscle and the Renal tubule
Renal Corpuscle (located in Renal Cortex) Composed of the Glomerulus and the Glomerular capsule
Renal Tubule Composed of the Proximal Convoluted Tubule, the Nephron Loop, and the Distal Convoluted Tubule,
Flow of Urine Components thru a Nephron Glomerular capsule, proximal convoluted tubule, nephron loop, distal convoluted tubule, collecting duct and minor calyx
Blood Flow to a Nephron Blood flows from the Renal Artery- smaller arteries- to afferent arteriole- to the glomerulus- to the efferent arteriole- to the peritubilar capillaries- to venules- to larger veins- to the renal vein
Anatomy of the Ureters They are retroperitioneal Deliver urine from the renal pelvis to the urinary bladder Go posterior to the bladder and enter the bladder at its base
Anatomy of the Urinary Bladder Is a storage sac with smooth muscle in its walls Detrusor muscle thickens at the base of the bladder to form the Internal Urinary Sphincter( no control over)
Trigone A triangular area of the bladder floor and is defined by the openings to the ureters and the urethra
Anatomy of the Urethra Delivers urine from the urinary bladder to the outside Urethra of a male is longer than a females Surrounded by the External Urinary Sphincter(made of skeletal muscle) as it passes thru the pelvic floor
Male Urethra 3 parts Prostatic Urethra, Membranous Urethra, and the Penile Urethra
Micturition Passing of Urine
Micturition Reflex Controls the passing of urine in infants, but higher brain centers influence the reflex after potty training
Urine Production Process Filtration, reabsorption and secretion
Filtration Happens in the Renal Corpuscle Material move frm the glomerulus to the Glomerular capsule by filtration (water, glucose, amino acid, some nitrogenous waste and mineral salt
Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) Increased by high blood pressure, decreased by low blood pressure
Reabsorption Happens along the Renal Tubule Materials move from the tubules to the peritubular capillaries (100% of the glucose, 100% of the amino acids, amounts vary for mineral salts and water
Secretion Happens along the Renal Tubule Materials move from the peritubular capillaries to the tubules (nitrogenous waste, excess hydrogen ions, excess potassium ions and some drugs
Normal PH Level 7.35-7.45 The kidney helps with the PH acid base balance
Acidosis Below normal PH Level
Metabolic Acidosis Decreased kidney elimination of hydrogen ions or increase production of acidic substances that metabolize
Alkalosis Above normal PH Level
Water in the Body (Held in to Fluid compartments) Daily water intake should equal daily water output makes up 55 to 60% of the body 65% is intracellular(inside the cell) 35% extracellular(outside the cell) Water moves easily between compartments by osmosis to minimize concentration gradiens
Regulation of Urine Volume and Concentration Regulated thru hormones, the nervous system and diuretics Hormones: ADH, aldosterone and ANH The Sympathetic NS reduces urine production
ADH (Anti-diuretic Hormone) Increases water reabsorption Increases permeability of DCT and collecting ducts
High Blood water concentration Means less ADH production Less water absorption and urine volume increases
Low Blood water concentration Drop in blood triggers the ADH Means more ADH production Moe water is reabsorbed and urine volume decreases
Aldosterone Regulates sodium ion reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubule
ANH (Atrial Natriuretic Hormone) effects the heart Dilates the afferent arterioles while constricting the efferent arterioles in the kidney, GFR increases Inhibits the secretion of ADH and inhibits sodium reabsorption
Diuretics Increase in Urine Production Alcohol inhibits the secretion of ADH Caffeine increases blood flow to the kidney, increases GFR, and decreases sodium production
Effects of Aging on the Excretory System Size of kidneys and number of Nephron decrease GFR and reserve capacity decrease Responsiveness to ADH decreased
Effects of Aging on the Excretory System 80% of Elderly men experience Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (makes micturition difficult) Elderly woman often experience incontinence due to weakened pelvic floor muscles
Created by: myrnasGirl3