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Chapter 31

AP Euro - Revolution, Rebuilding, and New Challenges: 1985 to the present

Bretton Woods Conference, 1944 Lay the foundations for modern international monetary system. GATT Between 1958 and 1971 the value of national currencies were based on gold and the US dollar.
GATT International Monetary Fund (IMF) Sought to stimulate international trade by lowering tariffs and other trade restrictions. Designed to provide short-term loans to struggling countries to prevent economic crisis and anarchy.
World Bank Provided long-term loans to countries for economic growth.
United Nations created in 1945. UN's framework had been agreed to during WWII by the Allies at the Yalta Conference in February 1945.
Security Council Consisted of 12 nations (including 5 permanent members) that had the authority to actively maintain peace throughout the world b. Permanent members were the victors in World War II: U.S., USSR, Britain, France and China
General Assembly Had virtually every country in the world. Had the power to advise but could not enforce its recommendations.
Christian Democrats Emerged as a dominant political movement in several countries. Rejected authoritarianism and narrow nationalism; had faith in democracy and cooperation. Saw a common Christian and European heritage.
Charles de Gaulle Inspiring wartime leader of the Free French, re-established the free and democratic Fourth Republic.
French Fourth Republic government of the French Republic from 1946 to 1958. The postwar provisional president Charles de Gaulle resigned in 1946, expecting that public support would bring him back to power with a mandate to impose his constitutional ideas.
welfare state Attlee moved toward establishment of a "welfare state". Western European countries sought to provide universal services to all their people.
mixed economy Britain became the model for the ―welfare state and a “mixed economy” under the socialistic Labour Party and prime minister Clement Attlee.
Margaret Thatcher Government began privatizing industries that had been state-owned and restricting labor strikes. Led the British.
guest workers Eventually, nationalists in the receiving countries became troubled by how the ―guest workers seemed to be affecting the culture and economy.
Council of Europe European federalists hoped the Council would quickly evolve into a true European parliament with sovereign rights, but this did not happen. Britain was opposed giving any real political power-sovereignty-to the council.
European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) Largely organized by French statesmen Jean Monnet and Foreign Minister Robert Schuman. Immediate economic goal: a single competitive market without national tariffs or quotas.
the Six By 1958 coal and steel moved freely among six nations of the European Coal and Steel Community.
European Economic Community (EEC), Common Market The EEC was designed to create a common market among its members through the elimination of most trade barriers and the establishment of a common external trade policy.
Treaty of Rome, 1957 the purpose of developing peaceful applications of atomic energy, was signed by the same countries on the same day, and therefore the two treaties together are often called the Treaties of Rome.
Euratom international organization established by one of the Treaties of Rome in 1958 to form a common market for the development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy.
COMECON Communist states responded by forming their own economic association.
French Fifth Republic Under the constitution crafted by Charles de Gaulle with the help of Michel Debré, executive power was increased at the expense of the National Assembly.
European Union (EU) international organization comprising 28 European countries and governing common economic, social, and security policies. Originally confined to western Europe, the EU undertook a robust expansion into central and eastern Europe in the early 21st century.
Maastricht Treaty, 1991 Promised most radical revision of the EC since its beginning
Euro dollar, euro Became the single currency of the EU in 2002 integrating the currency of 12 western and central European nations.
oil crisis OPEC dramatically increased oil prices in Europe and the U.S. in retaliation for their support of Israel in the Yom Kippur War against Egypt and Syria.
Francois Mitterrand led his Socialist party and Communist allies in launching a vast program of nationalization and public investment designed to spend France out of economic stagnation.
Sputnik USSR launched this, an orbiting satellite using long-range rockets.
space race part of Cold War competition. Is a quintessential example of "Big Science" at work.
Yuri Gagarin Soviets sent world's first cosmonaut into orbit.
The American Challenge Some Europeans feared Europe was falling behind U.S. in science, technology, and most dynamic industrial sectors of the late 20th century.
consumerism worked to level Western society. Sparked by rising standard of living giving more people disposable income. European automobile industry expanded phenomenally. Gadget revolution.
Counter-Culture rebellion against parents, authority figures and status quo.
French student revolt, 1968 Students took over the university, leading to violent clashes with police. Most students demanded changes in curriculum and real voice in running the university. Appealed to industrial workers for help; spontaneous general strike spread across France.
women’s rights movement New statutes in the workplace: laws against discrimination, ―equal pay for equal work, and maternal leave and affordable day care.
Simone de Beauvoir The Second Sex (1949) -  Argued women were in essence free but had almost always been trapped by particularly inflexible and limiting conditions.
Second Vatican Council (Vatican II) Allowed for use of the vernacular in the Catholic liturgy. Scripture was declared to be the foundation of the Church.
Created by: Jrod42