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Chapter 12

Chapter 12 Glossary

Ablation Removal or destruction of a body part or tissue or its function. Ablation is performed by surgical means, hormones, drugs, radiofrequency, heat, cold, chemical application, or other methods.
Abscess Circumscribed collection of pus resulting from bacteria, frequently associated with swelling and other signs of inflammation.
Adhesion Abnormal fibrous connection between two structures (soft tissue or bony structures) may occur as the result of surgery, infection, or trauma
Allograft Graft from one individual to another of the same species
Anastomosis Surgically created connection between ducts, blood vessels, or bowel segments to allow flow from one to the other
Anomaly Irregularity in the structure or position of an organ or tissue
Anuria Suppression, cessation, or failure of the kidneys to secrete urine
Aspiration Drawing of fluid out by suction
Atony Absence of normal muscle tone and strength
Atresia Congenital closure or absence of a tubular organ or an opening to the body surface
Autograft Tissue or organ transferred to a new position in the body of the same individual
Azoospermia Failure of sperm development or the absence of sperm in the semen; one of the most common factors in male infertility
Balanoposthitis Inflammation and/or infection of the glans penis and prepuce
Blunt Dissection Surgical Technique used to expose an underlying area by separating along natural cleavage lines of tissue, without cutting
Brachytherapy Form of radiation therapy in which radioactive pellets or seeds are implanted directly into the tissue being treated to deliver their dose of radiation in a more direct fashion. Brachytherapy provides radiation to prescribed body area while minimizing exp
Calculus Abnormal, stone-like concretion of calcium, cholesterol, mineral salts, or other substances forming in any part of the body
Carcinoma Insitu (CIS) Malignancy arising from cells of the vessel, gland, or organ of origin remaining confined to hat site, has not invaded neighboring tissue.
Chordee Ventral (downward) curvature of the penis due to a fibrous band along the corpus spongiosum seen congenitally with hypospadias, or a downward curvature seen on erection in disease conditions causing lack of distenibility in the tissues
Chronic Interstitial Cystitis Persistently inflamed lesion of the bladder wall, usually accompanied by urinary frequency, pain, nocturia, and a distended bladder
Circumcise Circular cutting around the penis to remove prepuce of foreskin
Conduit Surgically created channel for the passage of fluids
Conyloma Infectious, tumor-like growth caused by the human papilloma virus, with branding connective tissue core and epithelial covering occurring on the skin and mucous membranes of a perianal region and external genitalia
Cryotherapy Surgical procedure using intense cold for ablation or treatment
Cystitis Inflammation of the urinary bladder. Symptoms include dysuria, frequency of urination, urgency, and hematuria
Cystitis Cystica Inflammation of the bladder characterized by the formation of multiple cysts
Cystocele Herniation of the bladder into the vagina
Cystostomy Formation of an opening through the abdominal wall into the bladder
Cystotomy Surgical incision into the urinary bladder or gallbladder
Cutaneous Relating to the skin
Debridement Removal of dead or contaminated tissue and foreign matter from a wound.
Dilation Artificial increase in the diameter of an opening or lumen made by medication or by instrumentation
Dissect Cut apart or separate tissue foror surgical purposes of for visual or microscopic study
Diverticulum Pouch or sac in the wall of an organ or canal
Dysuria Pain upon urination
Electrocautery Division or cutting of tissue using high frequency electrical current to produce heat, which destroys cells or ablates tissue
Epididymis Coiled tube on the back of the testis, the site of sperm maturation and storage and where spermatozoa are propelled into the vas deferens toward the ejaculatory duct by contraction of smooth muscle
Epididymo-orchitis Inflammation of the testes and epididymis
Epispadias Male anomaly in which the urethral opening is abnormally located on the dorsum of the penis, appearing as a groove with no upper urethral wall covering
Exenteration Surgical removal of the entire contents of a body cavity, such as the pelvis or orbit
Extrophy of Bladder Congenital Anomaly occurring when the bladder everts itself, or turns inside out, through an absent part of the lower abdominal and anterior bladder walls with incomplete closure of the pubic bone
Fascia Fibrous sheet or band of tissue that envelops organs, muscles, and grouping of muscles
Fibrosis Formation of fibrous tissue as part of restorative process
Fistula Abnormal tube-like passage between two body cavities or organs or from an organ
Fixate Hold, secure, or fasten in position
Flap Mass of flesh and skin partially excised from its location but retaining its blood supply, moved to another site to repair adjacent distant defects
Fluoroscopy Radiology technique allowing visual examination of part of the bruction ody or a function of an organ using a device projecting an X-ray image on screen
Foley Catheter Temporary indwelling urethral catheter held in place in the bladder by an inflated balloon containing fluid or air
Fereign Body An object or substance found in an organ and tissue not belonging under normal circumstances
Free Graft Unattached piece of skin and tissue moved to another part of the body and sutured into place to repair defect
Fulguration Destruction of living tissue using sparks from high-frequency electric current
Hematoma Tumor-like collection of fluid in some part of the body caused by a break in a blood vessel wall, usually as a result of trauma
Hematospermia Blood in the seminal fluid, often caused by inflammation of the prostate or seminal vesicles, or prostate cancer. In primary hematospermia, the presence of blood in the seminal fluid is only the symptom.
Hematuria Blood in the urine, which may present as gross visible blood or as the presence of red blood cells visible only under microscope
Homograft Graft from one individual to another of the same species
Horseshoe Kidney Congenital anomaly in which the kidneys are fused together at the lower end during fetal development, resulting in one large, horseshoe shaped kidney, often associated with cardiovascular, central nervous system, or genitourinary anomalies
Hydronephrosis Distention of the kidney caused by an accumulation of urine, because it cannot flow out due to an obstruction caused by conditions such as kidney stones or vesicoureteral reflux
Hydroureter Abnormal enlargement or distention of the ureter with water or urine caused by obstruction
Hyperplasia Abnormal proliferation in the number of normal cells in regular tissue arrangement
Hypertonicity Excessive muscle tone and augmented resistance to normal muscle stretching
Hypertrophic Enlarged or overgrown from an increase in cell size of the affected tissue
Hypospadias Fairly uncommon birth defect in males in which the meatus, or urinary opening, is abnormally positioned on the underside of the penile shaft or in the perineum requiring early surgical correction
Incontinence Involuntary escape of urine
Impotence Psychosexual or organic dysfunction in which there is partial or complete failure or complete failure to attain or maintain erection until completion of sexual act
Laceration Tearing injury; a torn, ragged-edged wound
Laser Surgery Use of contracted, sharply defined light beams to cut, cauterize, coagulate, seal or vaporize tissue
Lithotripsy Destruction of calcified substances (eg, stones/calculi) in the gallbladder or urinary system by fragmenting the concentration into small particles to be washed out. This may be done by surgical or noninvasive methods, such as focused sound waves or ultra
Lumen Space within an artery, vein, intestine, or tube
Lysis Destruction, breakdown, dissolution, or decomposition of cells or substances by a specific catalyzing agent
Marsupialization Creation of a pouch in surgical treatment of a cyst in which one wall is resected and the remaining cut edges are sutured to adjacent tissue creating an open pouch of the previously enclosed cyst
Meatus Opening or passage into the body
Molluscum Contagiosum Common, benign, viral skin infection, usually self-limiting, appears as a gray or flesh-colored umbilcated (dimpled or belly button shaped) lesion by itself or in groups, and later becomes white with an expulsable core containing core containing the repli
Nephrostomy Placement of a stent, tube, or catheter forming a passage from the exterior of the body into the renal pelvis or calyx, often for drainage of urine or an abscess, for exploration, or calculus extraction
Neurogenic Bladder Dysfunctional bladder due to central or peripheral nervous system lesion, may result in incontinence, residual urine retention, infection, stones, and renal failure
Nocturnal Enuresis Bed-wetting
Oligospemia Insufficient production of sperm in semen, a common fator in male infertility
Orchiectomy Surgical removal of one or both testicles via a scrotal or groin incision, indicated in cases of cancer, traumatic injury, and sex reassignment surgery
Patency State of a tube-like structure or conduit being open and unobstructed
Perforation Hole in an object, organ, or tissue, or the act of punching or boring holes through apart
Perineal Pertaining to the pelvic floor area between the thighs; the diamond-shaped are bordered by the pubic symphysis in front, the ischial tuberosities on the sides and the coccyx in the back
Peritoneum Strong, continuous membrane forming the lining of the abdominal and pelvic cavity. The parietal peritoneum, or outer layer, is attached to the abdominopelvic walls and the visceral peritoneum, or inner layer, surrounds the organs inside the abdominal cavi
Peyronie's Disease Development of fibrotic hardened tissue or plaque in the cavernosal sheaths in the penis. This causes pain and severe chordee or curvature in the penis, typically during erection
Phimosis Condition in which the foreskin is contracted and cannot be drawn back behind the glans penis
Priapism Persistent, painful erection lasting more than four hours and unrelated to sexual stimulation, causing pain and tenderness
Prepuce Fold of penile skin covering the glans
Prolapse Falling, sliding, or sinking of an organ from its normal locationin the body
Prostate Male gland surrounding the bladder neck and urethra that secretes a substance into the seminal fluid
Puncture Aspiration Use of a knife or needle to pierce a fluid filled cavity and then withdraw the fluid using a syringe or suction device
Retroperitoneal Located behind the peritoneum, the membrane that lines the abdominopelvic walls and forms a covering for internal organs
Scrotum Skin pouch holding the testes and supporting reproductive structures
Seminal Vesicles Parietal glands located at the base of the bladder in males, releases the majority of fluid into semen through ducts joining with the vas deferens forming the ejaculatory duct
Skene's Gland Paraurethral ducts draining a group of female urethral glands into the vestibule
Sound Long, slender tool with a type of curved, flat probe at the end for dilating strictures or detecting foreign bodies
Spermatic Cord Structure of the male reproductive organs consisting of ducts deferens, testicular artery, nerves, and veins draining the testes
Stent Tube to provide support in a body cavity or lumen
Stoma Opening created in the abdominal wall from an internal organ or structure for diversion of waste elimination, drainage, and abscess
Stress Urinary Incontinence (SUI) Involuntary escape of urine at times of minor stress against the bladder, such as coughing, sneezing, or laughing
Stricture Narrowing of anatomical structure
Subcutaneous Tissue Sheet or wide band of adipose (fat) and areolar connective tissue in tissue in two layers attached to the dermis
Testes Male gonadal paired glands located in the scrotum secreting testosterone and containing the seminiferous tubules where sperm is produced
Thermotherapy Therapeutic elevation of body temperature between 107.6 and 113.0 degrees Fahrenheit
Torsion of Testis Twisting, turning or rotation of the testicle upon itself, so as to compromise or cut off the blood supply
Transprostatic Implant A system that permanently retracts prostate tissue away from the urethra without cutting, heating or removing prostate tissue. Used for treatment of symptoms due to urinary outflow obstruction secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)
Trigone Triangular, smooth area of mucous membrane at the base of the bladder, located between the ureteric openings posteriorly and the urethral opening anteriorly
Tumor Pathologic swelling or enlargement; a neoplastic growth or uncontrolled, abnormal multiplication of cells
Tunica Vaginalis Serous membrane partially covers the testes formed by an outpocketing of the peritoneum when the testes descend
Urachus Embryonic tube connecting the urinary bladder to the umbilicus during development of the fetus, normally closes before birth, generally in the fourth or fifth month of gestation
Urethra Small tube lined with mucous membrane leading from the bladder to the exterior of the body
Ureterocele Saccular formation of the lower part of the ureter, protruding into the bladder
Urethral Caruncle Small, polyp-like growth of a deep red color found in women on the mucous membrane of the urethral opening
Urge Incontinence Involuntary escape of urine coming from sudden, uncontrollable impulses
Urostomy Creation of an opening to the abdominal surface to divert urine flow
Vascularization Surgically induced development or growth of vessels in a tissue; the process of blood vessel generation
Vas Deferens Duct that arises in the tail of the epididymis, stores and carries sperm from epididymis toward the urethra
Vesical Fistula Abnormal communication between the bladder and another structure
Viscoureteral Reflux Urine passage from the bladder back into the ureter and kidneys, can lead to bacterial infection and an increase in hydrostatic pressure, causing kidney damage.
Created by: BBracha
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