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APHG test study

Chapter 10 and 11

Agribusiness Commercial agriculture characterized by the integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations.
Agricultural revolution The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering.
Agriculture The deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth's surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance or economic gain.
Combine A machine that reaps, threshes, and cleans grain while moving over a field.
Commercial agriculture Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm.
Crop rotation The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year to avoid exhausting the soil.
Desertification Degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions such as excessive crop planting.
Dietary energy consumption The amount of food that an individual consumes, measured in kilocalories(calories in the United States)
Double cropping Harvesting twice a year from the same field.
Food security Physical, social, and economic access at all times to safe and nutritious food sufficient to meet dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life.
Green revolution Rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers.
Horticulture The growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers.
Intensive subsistence agriculture A for of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land.
Paddy The Malay word for wet rice, commonly but incorrectly used to describe a sawah.
Pastoral nomadism A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals.
Reaper A machine that cuts cereal grain standing in a field.
Ridge tillage A system of planting crops on ridge tops in order to reduce farm production costs and promote greater soil conservation.
Sawah A flooded field for growing rice.
Shifting cultivation A for of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is said for crops for a relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period.
Slash-and-burn agriculture Another name for shifting cultivation, so named because fields are cleared by slashing the vegetation and burning the debris.
Subsistence agriculture Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family.
Sustainable agriculture Farming methods that preserve long-term productivity of land and minimize pollution, typically by rotating soil-restoring crops with cash crops and reducing inputs of fertilizer and pesticides.
Swidden A patch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning.
Thresh To beat out grains from stalks.
Transhumance The seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures.
Truck farming Commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because truck was a Middle English word meaning "bartering" or "exchange of commodities"
Wet rice Rice planted on dry land in a nursery and then moved to a deliberately flooded field to promote growth.
Winnow To remove chaff by allowing it to be blown away by the wind.
Acid deposition Sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted by burning fossil fuels, that enter the atmosphere-where they combine with oxygen and water to form sulfuric acid and nitric acid- and return to Earth's surface.
Acid precipitation Conversion of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides to acids that return to Earth as rain, snow, or fog.
Air pollution Concentration of trace substances, such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and solid particulates, at a greater level that occurs in average air.
Biochemical oxygen demand(BOD) The amount of oxygen require by aquatic bacteria to decompose a give load of organic waste; a measure of water pollution.
Bulk-gaining industry An industry in which the final product weighs more or comprise a greater volume of than the inputs.
Bulk-reducing industry An industry in which the final product weighs less or comprises a lower volume that the inputs.
Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) A gas used as a solvent, a propellant in aerosols. a refrigerant, and in plastic foams and fire extinguishers.
Cottage industry Manufacturing based in homes rather than in factories, commonly found prior to the Industrial Revolution.
Ferrous Metals, including iron, that are utilized in the production of iron and steel.
Fordist production A form of mass production in which each worker is assigned one specific task to perform repeatedly.
Greenhouse effect The anticipated increase in Earth's temperature caused by carbon dioxide trapping some of the radiation emitted by the surface.
Industrial revolution A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.
Just-in-time delivery Shipment of parts and materials to arrive at a factory moments before they are needed.
Labor-intensive industry An industry for which labor costs comprise a high percentage of total expenses.
Maquiladora A factory built by a U.S. company in Mexico near the U.S. border, to take advantage of much lower labor costs in Mexico.
New international division of labor Transfer of some types of jobs, especially those requiring low-paid, less-skilled workers, from more developed to less developed countries.
Nonferrous Metals utilized to make products other than iron and steel.
Nonpoint-source pollution Pollution that originates from a large diffuse area.
Outsourcing A decision by a corporation to turn over much of the responsibility for production to independent suppliers.
Ozone A gas that absorbs ultraviolet solar radiation, found in the stratosphere, a zone 15-50 kilometers(9 to 30 miles) above Earth's surface.
Photochemical smog An atmospheric condition formed through a combination of weather conditions and pollution, especially from motor vehicle emission.
Point-source pollution Pollution that enters a body of water from a specific source.
Post-Fordist production Adoption by companies of flexible work rules, such as the allocation of workers to teams that perform a variety of tasks.
Right-to-work law A U.S. law that prevents a union and a company from negotiating a contract that requires workers join the union as a condition of employment.
Sanitary landfill A place to deposit solid waste, where a layer of earth is bulldozed over garbage each day to reduce emissions of gases and odors from the decaying trash, to minimize fires, and to discourage vermin.
Site factors Location factors related to the costs of factors of production inside a plant, such as land, labor, and capital.
Situation factors Location factors related to the transportation of materials into and from a factory.
Vertical integration An approach typical of traditional mass production in which a company controls all phases of a high complex production process.
Created by: Heavenleighallen
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