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2016-17 PHS Unit 8

2016-2017 Unit 8 Test Review

TermDefinition
anatomy Study of structures of the body
physiology Study of the functions of the structures of the body
pathophysiology Study of the processes of disease in the body
cells Microscopic structures that carry out all functions of life
tissues Cells of similar type join together for a common purpose
epithelial tissue Covers surface of the body; lining of organs & body cavities
connective tissue Supports organs & body parts
4 types of tissue epithelial, connective, nerve and muscle
nerve tissue controls & coordinates body activities by transmitting messages
muscle tissue produces power and movement
integumentary system hair, nails, skin, sweat and oil glands
integumetnary sysytem helps regulate body temperature; protect body from dehydration, infection and injury
skeletal system bones and cartilage
skeletal system creates structure and framework of the body; produces blood cells; protects internal organs
muscular system skeletal, visceral (smooth) & cardiac muscles
muscular system contract and relax to enable body movements; generate heat
nervous system nerves, brain, spinal cord and special sense organs
nervous system sends electrical messages throughout body to coordinate and control body activities
circulatory or cardiovascular system heart, blood vessels and blood
circulatory or cardiovascular system transports blood around body to deliver oxygen and nutrients and remove waste products
lymphatic system lymph nodes, lymph vessels, spleen, tonsils and thymus glad
lymphatic system removes waste from tissues, helps with immunity and absorbs fat and fat-soluble vitamins from the small intestine
respiratory system lungs, nose, nasal cavities, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi
respiratory system exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide
digestive system mouth, salivary glands, esophagus, pharynx, stomach, intestine, liver, gallbladder and pancrease
digestive system physical/chemical breakdown of food; absorbs nutrients; transports food and eliminates waste
urinary system kidney, ureters, bladder, urethra
urinary system filters blood to maintain fluid and electrolyte balance; eliminates waste via urine
endocrine system pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas, adrenal and gonads
endocrine system secretes hormones to regulate body processes
reproductive system females: ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, breasts males: testes, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, penis
reproductive system enables reproduction
organs two or more tissues join together to perform a specific function
body systems several organs and body parts join together for a common function
Right Atrium chamber that receives oxygen-poor blood from the body
Mitral Valve controls bloodflow between the left atrium and left ventricle
Left Ventricle chamber that pumps oxygen-rich blood to the body
Vena Cava inferior and superior blood vessels that receive oxygen-poor blood from the body
Pulmonary Veins blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood from the lungs
Aortic Valve controls bloodflow between the left ventricle and aorta
Pulmonary Arteries blood vessels that carry oxygen-poor blood to the lungs
Tricuspid Valve controls bloodflow between the right atrium and right ventricle
Pulmonary Valve controls bloodflow between the right ventricle and pulmonary arteries
Left Atrium chamber that receives oxygen-rich blood from the lungs
Lungs organs of respiration
Right Ventricle chamber that pumps oxygen-poor blood to the lungs
Aorta blood vessel that carries oxygen-rich blood to be distributed throughout the body
Anemia Inadequate number of red blood cells, hemoglobin, or both
Aneurysm Saclike formation in the wall of an artery
Arteriosclerosis Hardening or thickening of the arterial walls
Atherosclerosis A fatty deposit on the walls of arteries
Embolus foreign substance circulating in the blood vessels
Hemophilia Disease characterized by failure of the blood to clot
Hypertension High blood pressure
Leukemia Malignant disease with large numbers of immature white blood cells
Myocardial Infarction (heart attack) Blockage in the coronary arteries of the heart
Phlebitis Inflammation of the veins with formation of a clot
Varicose veins Dilated swollen veins
Pulse pressure of blood pushing against the wall of an artery as the heart pumps
Pulse Sites radial (wrist) and carotid (neck)
Blood Pressure Measure of the pressure blood exerts on the walls of arteries
CPR Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
AED Automated External Defibrillator
Normal Pulse at rest 60-100 beats per min
Normal blood pressure 120/80
Blood pressure is taken above which artery Brachial Artery
Actions if see an adult or teen suddenly collapse 1. Ensure scene is safe, 2. Tap shoulder & ask if ok, 3. yell for help, 4. Call 911 & get an AED, 5. Check for breathing, and if not breathing start CPR & 6) if breathing, look for obvious signs (bleeding, broken bones) of injury and medical tag.
During CPR, push the chest hard enough to move the chest? 2 inches
Nose Opening where air enters
Nasal Cavity Hollow space in the nose lined with mucous membranes; As air enters, it is warmed, filtered, & moistened
Cilia tiny hair-like structures that trap dirt/particles
Sinuses Cavities in the skull which help in voice resonance
Pharynx Throat (helps carry air to the lungs & food to the stomach)
Epiglottis cartilage flap that prevents food from entering the respiratory tract
Larynx Voicebox (vocal cords vibrate to produce speech when air exits the lungs)
Trachea Windpipe (tube from the larynx to the chest)
Bronchus Lower end of the trachea that divides to connect to the lungs
Bronchiole Lower/smaller bronchi within the lungs
Alveoli Cluster of thin-walled sacs surrounded by capillaries that exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide
Lungs Organs of respiration
Diaphragm Muscle that makes breathing possible
Ventilation the process of breathing
Inspiration (inhalation) the diaphragm contracts (moves down) and the rib cage expands
Expiration (exhalation) the diaphragm relaxes (moves up) and the rib cage returns to normal
External Respiration Exchange of carbon dioxide & oxygen between the lungs and blood stream
Internal Respiration Exchange of carbon dioxide & oxygen between the tissue cells and blood stream
Asthma Narrowed bronchioles caused by spasms/swelling (triggered by allergies or exercise)
Bronchitis Inflammation (swelling) of the bronchial tubes (caused by infection)
Emphysema A non-infectious, chronic disease where the walls of alveoli deteriorate and lose their elasticity.
Epistaxis nosebleed
Influenza Viral infection that causes coughing, sneezing, fatigue, body aches and contagious with a quick onset
Laryngitis Inflammation of the voicebox
Lung Cancer Abnormal cell growth found mainly in the lungs of smokers
Pneumonia Lung infection of the alveoli
Rhinitis Inflammation of the nasal mucous membranes
Sinusitis Inflammation of the mucous membranes in the sinuses
Tuberculosis Infectious bacterial lung disease where lesions form in the lungs that can spread (Highly contagious)
Transverse plane horizontal plane that divides body into a top and bottom half
Midsagittal plane divides the body into a right and left side
Frontal or Coronal Plane divides the body into a front section (ventral or anterior) and back section (dorsal or posterior)
Superior body parts above the transverse plane
Inferior body parts below the transverse planeC
Cranial body parts near the head
Cadaul body parts near the sacral region of the spinal column
Medial body parts close to the midline of the body
Lateral body parts away from the midline of the body
Ventral or Anterior front side of the body
Dorsal or Posterior backside of the body
Proximal body parts close to the point of reference
Distal body parts furthest from the point of reference.
Created by: vorachekt