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cytoplasm substance exist only in cell. (living matter). internal living materials of cells
Main cell parts Plasma membrane, Cytoplasm, Nucleus
Plasma membrane outer boundry of cell, encloses cytoplasm. 7nm
Phospholipids form fluid framework for plasma membrane
cytoskeleton threadlike structure, cell moving motor
cholera acute intestinal infection characterized by severe diarrhea, cramp,
organelle a specialized part of a cell having some specific function; a cell organ.
Ribosomes tiny particles throughout cell. Make enzymes and protein componds. "Protein factory"
rRNA rebosomal RNA
Endoplasmic Reticulum system of membranes forming network of connecting sac and canals, winding back & forth through cytoplasm. Rough & smooth
Golgi appartus tiny flattened sacs stacked on one each other near the nucleus. Sacs fuse with Bubbles/ sacs from smooth ER carry new proteins. "Vesicles"
Mitochondria organelle found in all cells, Two sacs, one inside each other. Energy-releasing chemical reaction. "power plant"
Lysosomes membranous-walled organelles.small sacs in active stage. Contain enzymes digest large nutrient molecules. "digestive bag"
Centrosome region of cytoplasm near nucleus of each cell. Organizing and moving structures within cell.
Centrioles paired organelles within centrosome. Two of these rod-shaped structures exist in every cell. They lie in right angle. Moving of chromosomes during cell division
cystic fibrosis A hereditary metabolic disorder of the exocrine glands, usually developing during early childhood and affecting mainly the pancreas, respiratory system, and sweat glands.
Microvilli cell extension; small fingerlike projection. more surface of plasma membrane, increase in ability to absorb substances
Cilia longer than microvilli, move back & forth pushing fluids along surface
flagellum single projection extending from cell surface.
Cell extension microvilli, cillia. flagellum
belie to show to be false; contradict:
Cell nucleus simple but complex structure; contains most genetic info; controls every organelle in cytoplasm; controls cell reproduction, duplication
nuclear envelope two separate membrane surround cell nucleus. Has nuclear pores permit large molecules into and out of nucleus
Nucleolus dense region in nucleoplasm, for protein formation. Cell makes subunits that form ribosomes
Nucleoplasm cell material inside nuclear envelope. Contains Nucleolus & chromatin granules
Chromatin granules made of proteins around which are wound segments of the long, threadlike ,molecules called DNA
Chromosomos during cell division DNA molecules become tightly coiled and then look like short rodlike structures
Body cell DNA molecules 46 total in nucleus and one (47th) in each of its mitochondria
atrophy decrease in cell size
Mitosis process cell divide to multiply. nuclear division of somatic cell
Passive transport process moving of substances one down a concentration gradient
Active transport moving of substances one up a concentration gradient and requiring energy to do so
Cytoskeleton acts as framework to support the cell and its organelles
Lyse disintegration of a cell
Osmosis passive transport process
permeate to pass into or through
Solute substance dissolved in a given solution
crenate Having a margin with low, rounded or scalloped projections or indentations.
tonicity the state, condition, or quality of being tonic
Hyper-, hypo-, isotonic >0.9%, <.09%, 0.9% NaCI
advent a coming into place, view, or being; arrival
ion pump protein structure in the cell membrane called carrier. Up concentration gradient
phagocytosis movement of cell or other larger particles into cell by trapping it in a section of plasm membrane that pinches off inside cell. ex: trapping bacterial cell by phagocytic white blood cells
Pinocytosis movement of fluid and dissolved molecules int a cell by trapping them in a section of plasma membrane that pinches off inside cell
gene specific segment of base pairs in a chromosome.same pairs different sequence
adenosine triphoshate (ATP) plays important role in energy transfer in the body
master code sequence of different nucleotides along the DNA double helix.
Chromosome any of several threadlike bodies, consisting of chromatin, that carry the genes in a linear order
Ribosome organelle: small & large subunit, free or fixed (attached to rough ER). makes protein
rough ER contains ribosomes, form transport vesicle
smooth ER involved in lipid synthesis
Golgi apparatus package new protein and lipids for transport (secretory vesicle). either excytosis or incorporate into cell membrane. Also makes lysosomes
Lysosomes filled with digestive enzymes, responsible for autolysis of injured cells
Peroxisomes carry enzymes that neutralize toxins
Meiosis produces sex cells
Apoptosis is the genetically controlled death of cells
neoplasm abnormal hyperplasia. mass formed is a tumor
membranous cytoplasmic organelles Mitochandria, Peroxisomes, Lysosomes, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Golgi apparatus
nonmembranous cytoplasmic organelles Ribosome, Centrioles, Cytoskeleton
Mitochondria organelle double membrane, provides most of cells ATP, contain own DNA, RNA
Nuclear envelope double membrane barrier with pores, outer layer continuous with rough ER and bear ribosomes, regulates transport of large molecules in and out nucleus
Mitosis stages of nuclear division Pro-, Meta-,Ana-, Telophase
movement CO2 out of cell Passive Transport
Endocytosis, Pinocytosis active transport
Transcription process inside nucleus, DNA code is copied into an mRNA form
Centriole one of a pair of tiny cylinders in the centrosome of a cell
Translation Synthesis of a protein in cytoplasm by ribosomes
Centromere beadlike structure attaches one chromatid to another during early stage of mitosis
Enzymes chemical catalyst to regulate cell metabolism
metabolism set of chemical reaction occurring in living organism to maintain life
genome. entire collection of genetic material in each typical cell of the human body
DNA nucleotide Sugar (deoxyribose), Phosphate group (PO4), Bases
DNA Base Adenine (A), Thymine (T), Cytosine (C), Guanine (G)
RNA nucleotide Sugar (ribose), Phosphate group (PO4), Bases
RNA Base Adenine (A), Cytosine (C), Guanine (G), Uracil (U)
Pairing A-T, C-G
smooth ER structure makes new membranes for the cell
Tissue typing uses information found on the plasma membrane.
Smooth muscle tissue has less ability to regenerate itself after an injury or damage
Ribosone organelle has a subunit made of RNA
ideal body fat M 15 - 18%; F 20-22%
Created by: ptenz



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