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Chapter 30

AP Euro - Cold War Conflicts

TermDefinition
Tehran Conference, 1943 USSR was guaranteed to be the only to liberate eastern Europe
Yalta Conference, 1945 Stalin pledged to allow democratic elections in eastern Europe(but later reneged) After the war, the Soviets dominated their zone and did not allow the reunification of Germany.
Potsdam Conference, 1945 US president Harry Truman demanded free elections in eastern Europe but Stalin refused. Stalin wanted a "buffer zone" between Germany and USSR for protection against a future war.
"Iron Curtain" speech Winston Churchill's speech in 1946 alerted Americans to a future conflict with the USSR.
West Germany (Federal Republic of Germany) 1949, West Germany became an independent country when US, France and Britain gave back each of their zones. Led by Konrad Adenauer
East Germany (German Democratic Republic) 1949, East Germany formally established Democratic Republic of Germany led by Walter Ulbricht
Truman Doctrine 1947 Established the U.S. policy of containment that would last four decades. U.S. gave aid to Greece and Turkey that helped those countries defeat communist insurgencies.
Containment By 1947, the US pledged to prevent the further spread of communism. George Kennan (U.S. ambassador to USSR) wrote a memo to President Truman in 1946 claiming that the USSR was out to disrupt the American way of life.
Marshall Plan Purpose: prevent communism from spreading into economically devastated regions while fostering trade between the U.S. and Europe. Result: western and central Europe recovered economically—the "economic miracle"
Berlin Airlift, 1948-49 Soviets attempted to remove the Allies from Berlin by cutting off access to the city.
NATO Founded in response to the Berlin Crisis.Collective security organization consisted of the democracies in Europe, US, and Canada to prevent against Soviet Expansion in Europe.
Warsaw Pact The Soviet Union created this, it provided for collective security for Eastern Bloc countries controlled by the USSR.
Hydrogen Bomb Developed by the US in 1952 and USSR in 1953. Far more destructive than the atomic bombs dropped on Japan at the end of World War II. The world now had two nuclear superpowers.
"Massive Retaliation" Under President Eisenhower, the US policy temporarily shifted to helping eastern European countries remove communism. US vowed to destroy USSR with nuclear weapons if it tried to expand.
Eastern Bloc Between 1946-53, the Soviet government was responsible for over 12 million deaths of its own citizens, more than any other period during the 20th century.
Joseph Stalin secretary-general of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1922–53) and premier of the Soviet state (1941–53), who for a quarter of a century dictatorially ruled the Soviet Union and transformed it into a major world power.
Gulags Forced labor camps
Josip Broz Tito Led Yugoslavia, was not dominated by Soviets. Had freed itself from Nazi domination without the help of the USSR. Had a mixed economy with private ownership of certain businesses, state control of basic industries, and collectivization of farming.
Nikita Khrushchev Power struggle ensured after Stalin died in 1953. Widespread fear and hatred of Stalin's political terror resulted in reduction of power of secret police and gradual closure of the gulags.
De-stalinization De-Stalinization resulted in communist reformers and the masses seeking greater liberty and national independence.
20th Party Congress speech Khrushchev took a startling initiative against hard-liners by denouncing Stalin's crimes in a closed session. Secret anti-Stalin speech was probably most influential statement in Russia since Lenin's April Theses in 1917.
Gosplan Resources shifted from heavy industry and the military toward consumer goods and agriculture - Centralized Economic Planning.
Boris Pasternak, Dr. Zhivago Story of an intellectual who rejects the brutality of the Bolshevik revolution of 1917 and Stalinism, and is ultimately destroyed.
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich Portrays in grim detail life in a Stalinist gulag(where he had been a prisoner)
Hungarian Uprising, 1956 Hungarian nationalists staged huge demonstration demanding non-communist parties be legalized; turned into armed rebellion and spread throughout the country. Soviet tanks and troops responded by invading Hungary and crushing national democratic revolution
“Peaceful Coexistence” Khrushchev sought “peaceful coexistence” with the West so that he could focus on improving the Soviet economy
Austrian independence USSR agreed in 1955 to real independence for a neutral Austria after 10 years of Allied occupation. Resulted in significant reduction in cold war tensions between 1955 & 1957.
Geneva Conference, 1955 USSR met with the U.S., Britain, & France to begin discussions on European security & disarmament. No agreements resulted
Sputnik A Russian satellite was sent into orbit on a rocket and was brought back safely to the USSR. Scientifically, this was an unprecedented achievement. Demonstrated that the USSR was ahead of the U.S. in space technology
“space race” Effectively began the “space race” with the U.S. as Americans were horrified that the Soviets had eclipsed U.S. technology in this area. 1958, USSR’s relations with the U.S. soured with Khrushchev's ultimatum for Allies to leave Berlin
U-2 incident American U-2 spy plane shot down over USSR a. Khrushchev demanded an apology from President Eisenhower; Eisenhower refused b. The scheduled Paris Summit in 1960 between Khrushchev and Eisenhower was canceled as a result
Berlin Wall 1961, Khrushchev threatened to enforce his 1958 ultimatum to remove the Allies from West Berlin The U.S., Britain and France refused to leave East Germany built the Berlin Wall around West Berlin rather than enforce the ultimatum to U.S.
Cuban Missile Crisis 1962: U.S. demanded Soviets remove their newly installed nuclear missiles from Cuba. Crisis became the closest USSR and US came to nuclear war during the Cold War
Leonid Brezhnev became new General Secretary (1964-1982)
“Prague Spring” The 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia was the crucial event of the Brezhnev era.
“socialism with a human face” sought greater democracy and freedom of speech
Alexander Dubcek elected leader: ushered new period of thaw and rebirth in famous “Prague Spring” of 1968.
Brezhnev Doctrine issued in response to “Prague Spring”: Henceforth, the Soviet Union and its allies had the right to intervene in any socialist country whenever they saw the need
Willy Brandt West German chancellor (1969-1974), began to improve relations with eastern Europe through his “eastern initiative”
Ostpolitik refers to the normalization of relations between the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, or West Germany) and Eastern Europe, particularly the German Democratic Republic (GDR, or East Germany) beginning in 1969.
détente U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and President Richard Nixon tried to place Brandt’s eastern initiatives in broader, American-led framework of reducing East-West tensions in early 1970s.
Salt I Brezhnev and Nixon signed treaty to stop making nuclear ballistic missiles and to reduce the number of antiballistic missiles to 200 for each power.
Helsinki Conference Officially ended World War II by finally legitimizing the Soviet-dictated boundaries of Poland and other east European countries.
Soviet invasion of Afghanistan Soviet invasion of Afghanistan led to U.S. refusal to ratify SALT II treaty (reducing nuclear armaments) and led to President Carter’s boycott of the 1980 Olympics in Moscow
Solidarity popular movement of working people who organized a massive union. 1981, Polish gov’t led by Communist party leader, General Jaruzelski imposed martial law after being warned by Soviets if the Polish gov’t could not keep order, the Soviets would.
Pope John Paul II (a Polish cardinal) was elected in 1979: traveled through Poland preaching love of Christ and country and “inalienable rights of man.”
Lech Walesa Led the movement "Solidarity"
Atlantic Alliance The Atlantic Alliance revitalized itself in the 1980s under the leadership of Ronald Reagan in the U.S.,
Margaret Thatcher Became prime minister in 1979. UK. As a conservative, she advocated hard-line military positions.
Helmut Kohl distinctly pro-American, came to power with conservative Christian Democrats in 1982.
Ronald Reagan took a hard-line stance against the Soviets during the first term of his presidency. Dealt with Soviets from position of strength by embarking on massive military buildup.
Mikhail Gorbachev Gorbachev assumed control of Soviet Union in 1985 and sought reforms. Gorbachev, in his 50s, was considerably younger than the communist hardliners that preceded him
glasnost Aimed to open Soviet society by introducing free speech and some political liberty, while ending party censorship; more successful than perestroika.
perestroika (“restructuring”): Aimed to revive the sagging Soviet economy by adopting many of the free-market practices of the West.
INF Treaty, 1987 signed by Gorbachev and Reagan in Washington, D.C., December 1987. a. All intermediate-range nuclear missiles from Europe banned. b. Represented a major milestone in reduction of Cold War tensions
START Treaty, 1990 treaty signed in 1990 between Gorbachev and President George Bush Would cut 10% of U.S. nuclear weapons and 25% of Soviet nukes and limit ICBM warheads
Revolutions of 1989 ended communist control of eastern Europe
German reunification The Berlin Wall came down in November and the East German gov't fell as a result a. Germany reunified in 1990
Vaclav Havel, “Velvet Revolution” The fall of the Berlin Wall inspired reformers to break away from Soviet influence. A general strike resulted in the fall of the communist government. Vaclav Havel, the dissident playwright, became president
Romania, Nicolae Ceausescu Oppressive dictator Nicolae Ceauşescu was overthrown and assassinated in Dec. 1989 About 1,000 people died as a result of the revolution.
fall of Soviet Union Costs of protecting and maintaining its empire in eastern Europe were too high. Call for reforms from the burgeoning middle class became increasingly influential.
Boris Yeltsin the president of Russia (1991-2000), defied Soviet tanks and became a national hero. Coup fatally weakened Gorbachev and spelled doom for the Soviet Union.
Chechnya One of the biggest issues of the 1990s and early 2000s was the insurgency in the predominantly Muslim Russian republic.
Vladimir Putin succeeded Yeltsin.
De-colonization European powers experienced the disintegration of their colonial empires after World War II.
India, Gandhi after WWI he led the independence movement through the principle of passive resistance. India played a key role in decolonization and the decline of imperialism.
Dien Bien Phu Japan defeated French forces.
Egypt Arab defeat in 1948 by Israel triggered a successful nationalist revolution in Egypt in 1952 that effectively ended British control of Egypt.
Algeria Algeria’s large French population considered Algeria an integral part of France and did not want the colony to become independent. A bitter war broke out between France and Algerian nationalists.
British Commonwealth of Nations Beginning in 1957, Britain’s colonies achieved independence with little or no bloodshed; entered a very loose association with Britain.
Mao Mao a Kenyan group of terrorists/freedom fighters who fought to end English control of Kenya.
Yugoslavia Civil war in this area. Established tighter central control over previously autonomous regions.
Slobodan Milosevic sought a Serbian-dominated Yugoslavia
Croatia declared independence and each fought Serbia successfully
Slovenia declared independence and each fought Serbia successfully
Bosnia-Herzegovina declared its independence in March 1992 and civil war spread there.
ethnic cleansing Bosnian Serbs tried to liquidate or remove Muslims by shelling cities, confiscating or destroying of houses, gang rape, expulsion, and murder.
Dayton Agreements 1995: Agreed to divide Bosnia between Muslims and Serbs
Kosovo Milosevic attempted to ethnically cleanse Kosovo (province of Serbia) of ethnic-Albanians NATO, led by U.S., bombed Serbia in order to stop the ethnic cleansing
Irish Republican Army (IRA) (IRA) terrorized English cities demanding that Northern Ireland be returned to Ireland.
Basques, ETA ETA in the Basque region of Spain used terrorism in its attempt for independence
“guest workers” “Guest Workers” became a major source of tension among right-wing nationalists
Jean-Marie Le Pen In France, Jean-Marie Le Pen was the most outspoken opponent of both immigration and French integration into the European Union.
Jorg Haider In Austria, Jorg Haider led the right-wing Austrian Freedom Party that was staunchly opposed to immigration
Created by: Jrod42