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Purple Module

Nervous System Rev Defs

ganglion A collection of nerve bodies
nerve A large bundle of axons wrapped in connective tissue
axon A long, single projection that transmits impulses from the cell body
neuron A nerve cell; the functional cell of the nervous system; responsible for impulse conduction
multiple sclerosis A progressive, degenerative disease of the myelin sheath, striking young adults aged 20-40; S&S include tremors, muscle weakness and slowness of movement
epilepsy A recurrent disorder of cerebral functions characterized by seizures
synapse Functional connection between two neurons or between a neuron and its effector organ (muscle or gland) is a gap or space
cisternal puncture A spinal puncture at the base of the brain to extract fluid or inject medication
lethargy Abnormal inactivity or lack of response to normal stimuli
dysrhythmia Abnormal rhythm, such as electrical disturbances in the brain
coma Abnormally deep unconsciousness with absence of voluntary response to stimuli
microcephaly Abnormally small head
hydrocephalus Accumulation of fluid in the ventricles of the brain, causing increased intracranial pressure, thinning of brain tissue and separation of cranial bones
local anesthetics Act upon nerves or nerve tracts to affect a local area only
general anesthetics Act upon the brain to produce complete loss of feeling with loss of consciousness
Reye Syndrome Acute encephalopathy and fatty infiltration of the brain, liver and, possibly, the pancreas, heart, kidney, spleen and lymph nodes
herpes zoster Acute inflammatory eruption of highly painful vesicles on the trunk of the body or, occasionally, the face; also called shingles
neurilemma Additional sheath external to myelin that is formed by Schwann cells and found only on axons in the peripheral nervous system
analgesics Agents that relieve pain by inhibiting the passage of pain impulses
efferent nerves Also known as motor nerves; conduct impulses away from the central nervous system
afferent nerves Also known as sensory nerves; conduct impulses toward the central nervous system
computed tomography angiography (CTA) Angiography in combination with a CT scan to produce high-resolution, 3D vascular images of the blood vessels
myelopathy Any disease of the spinal cord
convulsion Any sudden and violent contraction of one or more voluntary muscles
Guillain-Barre Syndrome Autoimmune condition that causes acute inflammation of the peripheral nerves in which myelin sheaths on the axons are destroyed, resulting in decreased nerve impulses, loss of reflex response, and sudden muscle weakness
dendrites Branching cytoplasmic projections that receive impulses and transmit them to the cell body
syncope Brief loss of consciousness and posture caused by a temporary decrease of blood flow to the brain; also called fainting
dementia Broad term that refers to cognitive deficit, including memory impairment
efferent Carry or move away from a central structure
afferent Carry or move inward or toward a central structure
neurotransmitters The impulse within the transmitting axon causes a chemical substances to be released at the end of its axon, It diffuses across the synapses
limbic system Complex neural system located beneath the cerebrum that controls basic emotions and drives and plays an important role in memory
positron emission tomography Computed tomography that records the positrons emitted from a radiopharmaceutical and produces a cross-sectional image of metabolic activity of body tissues to determine the presence of disease
anacephaly Congenitial deformity in which some or all of fetal brain is missing
spina bifida Congenital deformity of the neural tube which fails to close during fetal development; also called neural tube defect
antiparkinson agents Control tremors and muscle rigidity associated with Parkinson Disease by increasing dopamine in the brain
spinal cord Conveys sensory impulses to the brain from different parts of the body and also transmits motor impulses away from the brain to all muscles and organs
discography CT scan of the lumbar region after injection of a contrast medium to detect problems with the spine and spinal nerve roots
hypnotics Depress CNS functions, promote sedation and sleep, and relieve agitation, anxiousness, and restlessness
autism Developmental disorder characterized by extreme withdrawal and an abnormal absorption in fantasy, usually accompanied by an inability to communicate even on a basic level
bulimia nervosa Eating disorder characterized by binging and purging
hyperkinesia Excessive movement
ganglionectomy Excision of a ganglion
Bell palsy Facial paralysis caused by a functional disorder of the seventh cranial nerve
meningocele Form of spina bifida in which one or more vertebrae are malformed and the spinal cord is covered with a layer of skin
occulta Form of spina bifida in which the spinal cord develops properly but the meninges protrude through the spine
Tay-Sach Disease Genetic enzyme deficiency characterized by progressive mental challenges, paralysis, blindness, inability to eat and ultimately to death by age of four years
congenital hydrocephalus Hydrocephalus caused by factors that occur during fetal development or as a result of genetic abnormalities
acquired hydrocephalus hydrocephalus that develops at birth or any time afterward as a result of injury or disease
agnosia Inability to comprehend auditory, visual, spatial, olfactory or other sensations even though the sensory sphere is intact
dyslexia Inability to learn and process written language despite adequate intelligence, sensory ability and exposure
aphasia Inability to speak
craniotomy Incision into the skull
peripheral nervous system (PNS) Includes all nervous tissue of the body found outside the CNS
encephalitis Inflammation of the brain
poliomyelitis Inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord caused by a virus, commonly resulting in spinal and muscle deformity and paralysis
Huntington chorea Inherited disease of the CNS characterized by quick, involuntary movements, speech disturbances and mental deterioration
concussion Injury to the brain, occasionally with transient loss of consciousness as a result of injury or trauma to the head
closed head trauma Injury to the head in which the dura mater remains intact and brain tissue is not exposed
pia mater Innermost membrane covering the brain and spinal cord
tremor Involuntary tremble or shake
tics Involuntary, spasmodic muscular contractions, usually of the face and neck
cerebrospinal fluid analysis Laboratory test to examine a sample of the fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord; used to diagnose disorders of the CNS, including viral and bacterial infections, tumors, and hemorrhage
ataxia Lack of muscle coordination in the execution of voluntary movement
cerebrum Largest and uppermost portion of the brain whose major functions include sensory perception and interpretation, muscular movement and emotional aspects of behaviour and memory
paralysis Loss of voluntary motion in one or more muscle groups with or without loss of sensation
psychosis Major emotional disorder in which contact with reality is lost to the point that the individual is incapable of meeting challenges of daily life
brainstem Major section of the brain that serves as a pathway for impulse conduction between the brain and spinal cord
sedative Medication that depresses CNS activity; has a calming effect
tranquilizers Medications used to reduce tension and anxiety without decreasing the level of consciousness
bipolar disorder Mental disorder that causes unusual shifts in mood, emotion, energy and ability to function; also called manic-depressive illness
arachnoid membrane Middle layer covering the brain, between the dura mater and the pia mater
depression Mood disorder associated with sadness, despair, discouragement, and, commonly, feelings of low self-esteem, guilt and withdrawal
mania Mood disorder characterized by mental and physical hyperactivity, disorganized behaviour, and excessively elevated mood
myelomeningocele Most severe form of spina bifida in which the spinal cord and meninges protrude through the spine
lumbar puncture Needle puncture of the spinal cavity to extract spinal fluid for diagnostic purposes, introduce anesthetic agents into the spinal canal, or remove fluid to allow other fluids to be injected; also called spinal puncture and spinal tap
mixed nerves Nerves composed of both sensory and motor nerves
magnetic source imaging (MSI) Noninvasive neuroimaging technique to pinpoint the specific location where seizure activity originates and enable custom surgical treatment for tumor and epileptic tissue resection; also called magntoencephalography
neurosis Nonpsychotic mental illness that triggers feeling of distress and anxiety and impairs normal behaviour
idiopathic Occurring without a known cause
autonomic nervous system (ANS) One of the two parts of the peripheral nervous system which conveys impulses to glands, smooth muscles and cardiac muscles
somatic nervous system (SMS) One of the two parts of the peripheral nervous system which conveys impulses for voluntary functions
ventricle Organ chamber or cavity that receives or holds fluid
dura mater Outermost membrane covering the brain and spinal cord
myelalgia Pain in the spinal cord
quadriplegia Paralysis of both arms and legs, commonly resulting in bowel, bladder, and sexual dysfunction
paraplegia Paralysis of both lower limbs, typically as a result of trauma or disease of the lower spinal cord
hemiplegia Paralysis of one side of the body, typically as a result of a stroke; also called unilateral paralysis
palsy Paralysis, usually partial and commonly characterized by weakness and shaking or uncontrolled tremor
parasympathetic nervous system Part of the autonomic nervous system. Reverses the effects of the sympathetic nervous system
sympathetic nervous system Part of the autonomic nervous system. When in use may cause symptoms such as an accelerated heart rate and increased blood pressure
thalamotomy Partial destruction of the thalamus to treat intractable pain, involuntary movements, including tremors in Parkinson Disease or emotional disturbances
dystrophy Poor development
stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) Precisely focused radiation beams are used to treat tumours and other abnormal growths in the brain, spinal column and other body sites, and delivers high doses of radiation to the tumour with minimal exposure to surrounding healthy tissue
anticonvulsants Prevent uncontrolled neuron activity associated with seizures by altering electrical transmission along neurons or altering the chemical composition of neurotransmitters; also called antiepileptics
anesthetics Produce partial or complete loss of sensation with or without loss of consciousness
Alzheimer Disease Progressive neurological disorder of unknown etiology, characterized by memory loss, impaired judgment and impaired orientation
blood-brain barrier Protective mechanism that blocks specific substances found in the bloodstream from entering delicate brain tissue
myelography Radiographic examination to detect pathology of the spinal cord, including the location of the spinal cord injury, cysts, and tumours following injection of a contrast medium
angiography Radiographic image of the inside of a blood vessel after introduction of a contrast medium; also called arteriography
electroencephalography (EEG) Recording of electrical activity in the brain, whose cells emit distinct patterns of rhythmic electrical impulses
electromyography Recording of electrical signals that occur in a muscle when it is at rest and during contraction to assess nerve damage
psychostimulants Reduce impulsive behaviour by increasing the level of neurotransmitters
ventriculoperitoneal shunting Relieves intracranial pressure due to hydrocephalus by diverting excess cerebrospinal fluid from the ventricles into the peritoneal or thoracic cavity
cerebellum Second largest part of the brain; occupies the back of the brain; refines movement when the cerebrum initiates muscular movement; aids in maintaining equilibrium
paresthesia Sensation of numbness, prickling, tingling or heightened sensitivity
astrocytes Star-shaped neuroglia, which forms the blood-brain barrier, allowing only small molecules to be transferred from the blood to the brain
opiates Stupor or sleep-inducing drugs, containing opium
catatonic Stuporous or unresponsiveness; inability to move or talk
panic attack Sudden, intense, overwhelming feeling of fear that comes without warning and is not attributable to any immediate danger
neurolysis Surgical freeing of a nerve from and adhesion
trephination Technique that cuts a circular opening into the skull to reveal brain tissue and decrease intracranial pressure
cryosurgery Technique that exposes abnormal tissues to extreme cold to destroy it
nerve conduction velocity (NCV) Test that measures the speed at which impulses travel through a nerve
meninges Three membranes that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord: dura mater, arachnoid membrane and pia mater
tractotomy Transection of a nerve tract in the brainstem or spinal cord
antidepressants Treat multiple symptoms of depression by increasing levels of specific neurotransmetters
antipsychotics Treat psychosis, paranoia, and schizophrenia by altering chemicals in the brain, including the limbic system which controls emotions
cerebral palsy Type of paralysis that affects movement and body position and, sometimes, speech and learning ability
echoencephalography Ultrasound technique used to study intracranial structures of the brain and, especially, diagnose conditions that cause a shift in the midline structures of the brain
asthenia Weakness, debility or loss of strength
myelin Axon posses, a white lipoid covering acts as an electrical insulator that reduces the possibility of an impulse stimulating adjacent nerves in the peripheral nervous system and CNS
anaesthesia/ anesthesia Without feeling; loss of sensation
nerve block Type of regional anesthetic to block pain from the area supplied by that nerve
Created by: spencertasha



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