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Chapter 29

AP Euro - Dictatorships and the Second World War

Treaty of Versailles 1919, did not create an enduring peace.
Article 231 Severe punishment of Germany due to ___ resulted in conservative German resentment against the "dictated peace".
League of Nations without the U.S and USSR, didn't have the nor the support to maintain peace. During the 1930's, the _____ essentially stood by while aggressors like Germany and Italy invaded other countries and violated provisions of the Versailles Treaty.
Locarno Pact, 1925 Germany and other European nations agreed to settle all disputes peacefully. Gave Europeans a false sense of security about the future. Provisions were not enforceable. "Spirit of Locarno" was no longer relevant once Hitler took power.
Kellogg-Briand Pact, 1928 62 nations signed the the treaty proclaiming "war was illegal"(unless for purely defensive purposes) Once again, the treaty lacked enforcement provisions. Hitler later claimed that his aggressive military ventures were for "defensive purposes."
Manchuria, 1931 Japan invaded this area. League of Nations condemned the invasion but did little by the way of sanctions. Japan pulled out of the League.
Ethiopia, 1935 Italy invaded this area. Italy gained a measure of revenge for its earlier defeat by the Ethiopians in 1896. 5000 Italians. 500,000 Ethiopians died. League of Nations imposed sanctions on Italy, but did not include oil on the list of embargoed goods.
Spanish Civil War Generalissimo Francisco Franco, a fascist, sought to overthrow the republican government in Spain. Mussolini and Hitler supported Franco and used the conflict as a testing ground for their military forces.
Francisco Franco a fascist, sought to overthrow the republican government in Spain
Rome-Berlin Axis In response to military cooperation in Spain, the ___ ___ ___ was formed ("Fascintern"): an alliance between fascist Italy and Germany.
Rhineland, 1936 Reoccupied by Germany. Directly violated the Versailles Treaty (as well as the Locarno Pact) France was unwilling to enforce the treaty without British aid.
appeasement making concessions to an aggressor in order to achieve peace
pacifism ______ in Britain, stemming from the horrible memories of World War I, made the government reluctant to risk another world war with Germany.
Anschluss, 1938 Germany annexed Austria Austrian Chancellor to resigned Austrian Nazi party assumed control British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain rejected joining an alliance with France and Russia The international community did nothing in response
Sudetenland Hitler demanded that Germany receive the German-speaking province in western Czechoslovakia or else there would be war. Czechoslovakia refused
Munich Conference Issue of the Sudetenland was to be resolved in a conference arranged by British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain. Conference attended by Germany, Britain, France, and Italy. Solution: Czechoslovakia was forced to give away the Sudetenland
Neville Chamberlain British Prime Minister. Resolved the issue of Sudentenland.
Polish Corridor, Danzig One week after taking Czechoslovakia, Hitler demanded the Baltic port city of _____ (located in the _____ ______ that separated East Prussia from Germany)
German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact Hitler sought assurances that Russia would not attack Germany if he invaded Poland. A guarantee of non-aggression would ensure that Germany would only have to fight a one-front war against France and Britain
invasion of Poland Germany invaded _____on Sept. 1, 1939 Marked the beginning of World War II September 3, Britain & France declared war on Germany
Blitzkrieg ("lightning war") used against Poland New form of warfare used by Germany to quickly defeat an enemy by poking a hole in enemy line and cutting off front lines from the rear thus surrounding enemy. Strategy sought to avoid trench warfare of WWI.
Charles de Gaulle The “Free French” were led by General _____ __ _____, who fled to Britain during France’s fall
Tripartite Pact, 1940 Japan added to Rome-Berlin axis for mutual defense and military support.
Battle of Britain: RAF vs. Luftwaffe August, Luftwaffe (led by Herman Goring, one of Hitler's inner circle) was ordered by Hitler to destroy the Royal Air Force (RAF)
radar Britain effectively used _____ (a new technology) to detect Germany’s air attacks
“lebensraum” Hitler all along had planned on invading Russia to fulfill his dream of "________" (“living space”) in the east
“Great Patriotic War of the Fatherland” In the USSR, WWII became known as “Great Patriotic War of the Fatherland”
Atlantic Charter Churchill and U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt met after the invasion of U.S.S.R. Agreement: once Axis Powers were defeated, there would be no territorial changes contrary to the wishes of inhabitants.
Lend-Lease 1941) gave large amounts of money and supplies to help Britain and Soviets; effectively ended U.S. neutrality
Pearl Harbor Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Dec. 7, 1941, resulted in U.S. entry into the war
Grand Alliance formed in 1942. Consisted of Britain, the Soviet Union and the U.S. as well as two dozen other countries.
Holocaust the systematic state-sponsored killing of six million Jewish men, women, and children and millions of others by Nazi Germany and its collaborators during World War II.
Jewish ghettos In Poland, Jews were forced to live in ghettos (e.g. Warsaw and Krakow) a. Deprived of adequate supplies
Wannsee Conference meeting of Nazi officials on January 20, 1942, in the Berlin suburb of Wannsee to plan the “final solution” to the so-called “Jewish question” .
“Final Solution” ordered by Hitler, which meant the physical extermination of the Jewish people throughout Europe wherever German rule was in force or where.
Auschwitz Six death camps built in Poland in addition to hundreds of concentration camps Auschwitz was the most notorious
El Alamein By November, British forces (led by Bernard Montgomery) drove the Germans (led by Erwin Rommel—the “Desert Fox”) out of Egypt. the site of two major battles between British and Axis forces in 1942
Stalingrad Critical battle of the Eastern Front. First German land defeat in Europe. After the battle, the Soviets began the 2 ½-year campaign of pushing the German army back to Berlin
D-Day “Operation Overlord”, June 6, 1944 120,000 troops crossed the English Channel from southern England and invaded France in an amphibious assault on Normandy Western front established a. Spelled the end of Nazi domination of Europe
Battle of the Bulge Hitler's last gasp offensive to drive Allies away from the western German border Brutal fighting in the dead of winter resulted in frightful casualties on both sides. After Hitler failed, the Allies quickly penetrated deep into Germany in 1945.
Hiroshima, Nagasaki End of the war against Japan: Aug. 1945. U.S. dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Japan surrendered although the emperor was allowed to remain on the throne.
Tehran Conference, 1943 1943: First meeting of the “Big Three”—Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin. Stalin insisted on Soviet control of eastern Europe and the carving up of Germany amongst the Allies. Allies agreed to an invasion of the Western Europe in 1944.
Fall of France Fall of France occurred in less than six weeks a. Dunkirk: thousands of French and British soldiers were trapped on beaches of France Before Germans came in for the kill, thousands were rescued by an armada of British vessels
Vichy France France under the regime of Marshal Philippe Pétain from the Nazi German defeat of France to the Allied liberation in World War II.
Yalta Conference, 1945 Big Three met again. Stalin agreed to a “Declaration of Liberated Europe” which called for free elections. Germany to be divided into occupied zones.
Potsdam Conference, 1945 July 1945: Stalin, Harry Truman and Clement Atlee Issued warning to Japan of unconditional surrender or face utter devastation. Stalin reversed his position on eastern Europe stating there would be no free elections.
Created by: Jrod42