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ch.48-test 3 study guide

insertion of a needle or cannula into a vein for the purpose of withdrawing blood phlebotomy
what is venipuncture puncture of a _____ performed with a __________ and for the purpose of collecting blood
whole blood is the total volume of plasma and formed elements
why is alcohol sometimes not used because it can alter a test result, especially glucose, so the povidone-iodine swabs can be used in place of the alcohol for some tests
GGT-What is the glucose tolerance test Checks for glucose levels it take a couple hours and it is always done with pregnancy
Confirming Pretest Prep: What should you instruct the pt. to eat for 3 days before test instruction to the pt. for preparation for a GTT
formed elements RBC, WBC, platelets
PPE for Phlebotomy especially use what ALWAYS GLOVES
What are the most common sites? median cubital and cephalic veins, NOT femoral, inguinal, saphenous, seprior vena cava, popliteal, posterior tibial, radial nor ulnar veins
standard supplies for procedures evacuation - vacutainer, double needle, blood test tubes, alcohol, cotton or gauze bandaid butterfly- tubing with needle, syringe, alcohol, cotton, bandaid capillary- lancet, alcohol, cotton, test machine SHARPS container and gloves
48-2 What is the vacutainer/evacuation system all about? blood collection device used with interchangeable collection tubes that are calibrated to collect the exact amt. of blood
What is the butterfly system? 672 used for small or fragile veins and with children more frequently. They have wings attached to the needle and it helps hold the needle steady in the vein
The holder adapter plastic part of the evac system is also called what "v" vacutainer
What is the NIOSH recommends that health care workers use needles only if no safe alternatives are available; never recap needles before putting in sharps
yellow top tube TEST TYPE CMP
RED TOP TUBE- additive and test type COLLECTION TUBE WITH NO ADDITIVES, it can clot if left alone OR if you centrifuge it will separate the plasma and keep the clot at the bottom, used for blood chemistries and HIV/AIDS tests
GREEN top tube Test Types Electrolyte studies
RED/GRAY or gold - additive and test type No additive,
GRAY top tube test type blood glucose tests like FBS or HgbA1c and then tested every 3 months
If drawing Blood culture, then CBC, then Blood Chemistries,which tube is FIRST and last and why? 1-blood culture-yellow, 2- blood chem-RED, 3- CBC-Lav, Fresher cleaner sample for CBC
What to do with a elderly patient when drawing blood have the patient elevate their arm after removing the needle
which specimen collection technique collects the smallest amt and uses calibrated glass tubes (674) capillary puncture
which fingers are preferred to be used first? (674) 3rd and 4th
lancets are used when and what is definition 674 disposable instruments with sharp points used to puncture the skin
how is a capillary puncture taken in a infant? in the heel
characteristics of capillary puncture technique used on the pt's dominant hand used with a lancet used when smaller amounts of blood are needed NOT used in evacuation collection tubes nor syringes
pt. fears and concerns- PAIN what to tell a pt. and suggest (675)
bruises or scars do not inject into these areas
when does a hematoma occur? going through the vein, or not putting enough of the needle in the happens sometimes
What to tell a pt. regarding getting the blood test it is the best way to what? (675)
how to avoid a hematoma and read venipuncture complications p.677
anticoagulants and serum separators anticoagulant- Heparin and EDTA serum separator- separates the whole blood clots on the bottom and plasma on the top by serum separator, or yellow gel in tiger top tube and gold tube
KNOW TESTS: indications diseases and disorders-BUN and creatine kinase BUN test -bllod urea nitrogen-kidney disorders CREATINE kinase-heart disease
Total Cholesterol blood test to identify coranary artery disease (CAD) and atherosclerosis
Erythrocyte count (RBC) used to identify anemia
Glucose gray top and capillary puncture
potassium and sodium blood tests identifies fluid-electrolyte imbalances
Gout is identifies with which blood test Uric acid
PT or prothrombin time normal ranges 11-15seconds (how long it takes for the blood to clot)
calcium normal ranges 8.6-10 mEq/L
potassium normal ranges 3.5-5.1 mEq/L
glucose fasting blood sugar -FBS normal ranges 74-120 mg/dL
Blood counts
normal sodium blood level 136-146 mEq/L
WBC count- or white blood cell count is in which test? CBC
CBC contains what? Hct., Hgb, WBC, RBC, erythrocytes, basophils, everything for the whole blood
hematocrit determination identifies how much volume of a sample is made up of RBC's after the sample is spun in a centrifuge
What is the most common way to clean the sit for venipuncture? with alcohol
why do you not put tourniquet on too tight? it can cause hemolysis
what is hemolysis lysing or rupturing of RBC's(red blood cells)
what are the blood formed elements red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets
what is whole blood the total volume of plasma and formed elements
how far do you go into the vein wall when performing venipuncture with the evacuation system? 1/4-1/2 inch
After how many unsuccessful attempts at obtaining a good blood sample should yu seek assistance from your supervisor or MD 2
what is the blood disorder when the blood doesn't coagulate at a puncture site? hemophilia
what is plasma the clear yellow liquid in which formed elements of blood are suspended
After the blood has been spun in the centrifuge, what test determines how much volume of a sample is made up of red blood cells ? Hematocrit
what is the ELISA and Western blot tests used to confirm? HIV infection and ELISA is the ENZYME -linked immunosorbent assay test
What is Morphology the study of the shape of form of objects. (like those morph apps for pics- what did you morph into??)
steps before the collection of a blood specimen Identify the pt. correctly, ask the pt. to tell you their name,
when drawing blood from the elderly patient have the pt. elevate her arm after removing the needle
Be AWARE of any blood disorders BEFORE taking blood by asking pt. if they have a bleeding disorder or problems with their blood clotting AKA- hemophilia, if so, hold for min 5 min with pressure on puncture site or wound
Ask if pt. is allergic to latex, non-latex is safer - some pts. dont even know until the procedure. (NOT ON TEST-common with seasonal allergies to some trees)
Created by: Wcflores007
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