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Civics Flashcards


1. What are the 5 fundamental political principles of government? Consent of the governed Limited government Democracy Representative government Rule of law
2. What does “consent of the governed” mean? People agree to be rules People are the source of government Popular sovereignty
3. What does “limited government” mean? Government is not all powerful Restrictions/limits by a written constitution
4. What does “democracy” mean? Rule by the people
5. What does “representative government” mean? The people elect/vote for officials to govern/represent them
6. What does “rule of law” mean? All people, including elected officials, must obey the law
7. Which early American document guaranteed the rights of Englishmen to colonists? Charters of the Virginia Company of London
8. What document was written by George Mason and served as a model/example for the U.S. Bill of Rights? Declaration of Rights
9. What document by Thomas Jefferson and served as a model for the First Amendment’s freedom of religion? The Virginia Statue for Religious Freedom
10. Why is the Declaration of Independence important? Stated the grievances against the king, declared colonies' independence from Great Britain, affirmed certain unalienable rights, established the idea that all people are equal under law
11. What was the first plan of government for the United States and why did it fail? Articles of Confederation and because they didn't give Congress or the federal government enough power
12. What is the Preamble and what does it do? The introduction to the Constitution and sets forth the goals and purposes of the U.S. government
13. What is the written plan of government for the United States? The Constitution
14. What is federalism? The division of power between the states and the national government
15. What are the powers set aside for the states called? Reserved powers
16. What happens if a U.S. law conflicts with a state law? The U.S. law would rule over the state law because the national government is supreme
17. What are implied powers? Used to carry out expressed powers
18. What are powers the federal or state governments may NOT have? Powers limited by the Constitution
19. What are powers given specifically to Congress in the Constitution called? Expressed powers
20. What are the 3 levels of federal courts? U.S. Supreme Court U.S. Court of Appeals U.S. District Courts
21. What are the 4 levels of state courts? Supreme Court Court of Appeals Circuit Courts District Courts
22. What is the process for bringing a civil and criminal case to trial? Arrest Bail or Jail Arraignment - plea Trial Can appeal if guilty ABAT
23. What group makes laws for Virginia? Virginia General Assembly
24. What is the lawmaking process? How does a bill become a law? Introduced by a Senator or Representative Worked in committees Debated on the floor of each house Voted on in each house Sent to the president to sign into law
25. What is a veto? A constitutional right to reject a decision or proposal made by a law-making body
26. What is the role of a lobbyist? To persuade politicians to vote a certain way on certain bills
27. What does the executive branch include? President, vice president, cabinet, government agencies, regulatory commissions, and 15 executive departments
28. What is due process and where is it mentioned in the U.S. Constitution? It's the constitutional protection against unfair governmental actions and laws mentioned in the 5th and 14th amendments to the Constitution
29. What is the legislative branch of the local government? County - Board of Supervisors City - Council Town - Council
30. What positions does the VA Constitution require local governments to elect? Sheriff, clerk of court, commissioner of revenue, and treasurer
31. What is the role of the media in elections? Focusing the attention on selected issues and offering a forum in which opposing viewpoints are communicated
32. What are the primary responsibilities of the national government versus the state? National: conducts foreign policy, regulates commerce, and provides for the common defense. State: Promotes public health, safety, and welfare. Tensions exist when federal mandates require state actions without adequate funding
33. Describe the national legislative branch. Consists of Congress Makes the laws of the nations Approves the annual budget Confirms presidential appointments Raises revenue through taxes and other levies Regulates interstate and foreign trade Declares war
34. How does the executive branch influence policymaking? Proposing legislation in an annual speech to Congress Appealing directly to the people Approving or vetoing legislation Appointing officials who carry out the laws
35. What is judicial review? The court's authority to examine legislative and executive acts and to determine if they are unconstitutional
36. Which Supreme Court case established the idea of judicial review? Marbury v. Madison
37. Describe the system of checks and balances. Give examples. One branch limiting the power of the other two branches. The president checks Congress when the president proposes legislation and congress checks the president when legislators override presidential vetoes
38. What are the qualifications to vote? Citizen of the United States Resident of Virginia and precinct At least 18 years of age by day of general election
39. What factors determine who is more likely to vote? Education Age Income
40. What are PACs and what do they do? Political action committees
41. What are the functions of political parties? 1. Recruiting and nominating candidates 2. Educating the electorate about campaign issues 3. Helping candidates win elections 4, Monitoring actions of officeholders
42. How do third parties differ from the major parties?wh They rarely win elections but play an important role in politics. They introduce new ideas or press for a particular issue.
43. What are the major political parties and how are they different from each other? Republican and Democratic. Democrats or more liberal while Republicans are conservative.
44. How has the high cost of getting elected changed campaigning for public office? Not everyone is available to run for office if they wanted to
45. Explain how the electoral college works. Electors for each state meet to vote for Vice President and President. The number of electors is based on population
46. What are magistrates? A civil officer or lay judge who administers the law
47. What is the difference between original and appellate jurisdiction? Original is the first courts decision and appellate is when someone appeals for a higher court decision
48. Who heads the executive branch at each of the 3 levels of government? President
Who nominates and confirms Supreme Court Justices? President
50. What did Brown v. Board of Education say? Segregation of students in public schools violates the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment
51. What is our national legislature called? Congress
52. What does bicameral mean? Consists of two law-making bodies
53. None of the 3 branches of government is stronger than one another due to the system of __________. Checks and balances
54. What are the two houses of Congress called/ Senate and House of Representatives
55. How is representation determined in the House of Representatives? By state population
56. What are the roles of the President and Governor? Chief of state, Chief executive, Chief legislator, Commander-in-chief, Chief diplomat, Chief of party, Chief citizen (president. Chief of state, Chief legislator, Chief administrator, Party chief, Commander-in-chief
57. What is the name of the President’s annual speech to Congress? State of the Union Address
58. What are the 3 branches of government and what do they do? Legislative, executive, and judicial. They
59. What are the units of local government? Political subdivisions created by the General Assembly. Counties, towns, and cities
60. What is the difference between civil and criminal law? In a criminal case, a court determines whether a person accused of breaking the law is guilty or not guilty of a misdemeanor or felony. In a civil case, a court settles a disagreement between two parties.
61. Which courts have jury trials? U.S. District Courts, General District Courts, Juvenile and Domestic Relations Courts
62. What freedoms are guaranteed by the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution? Religion, speech, press, assembly, petition
63. How are amendments added to the U.S. Constitution? Proposal by Congress or convention and ratification by 3/4 states
64. How can the Constitution of Virginia be amended? Proposal by General Assembly or convention and ratification by the people/voters of VA
65. How does an individual become a U.S. citizen? Birth of naturalization
66. What are the steps involved in naturalization? Must demonstrate knowledge of American history and read, speak and write english
67. What are the duties of citizenship? Obey laws, pay taxes, serve in the armed forces if called, serve on a jury or as a witness in court if called
68. What is your #1 civic responsibility? What are some other responsibilities of citizens? Contribute to the common good. Register and vote, hold elective office, participate in political campaigns, serve in voluntary
69. How do citizens demonstrate thoughtful and effective participation in civic life? Formulating (asking) questions Analyzing information from a variety of sources Expressing a position Devising and implementing a pan Practicing thoughtful decision making in personal, financial, and civic matters
70. What does “separation of powers” mean? The powers of the national government are separated among 3 branches of the government in ways that limit any one branch from abusing its power
71. Which officials are locally elected? Mayor, sheriff, clerk of the circuit court, commissioner of revenue, and treasurer
72. Which powers do local governments exercise? Enforce state and local laws Promote public health Protect the environment Regulate land use Levy and collect taxes
73. How do localities enact ordinances? Through an elected Board of Supervisors
74. How do individuals and interest groups influence public policy? 1. Participating in politics (voting, campaigning) 2. Expressing opinions (lobbying, demonstrating, writing letters) 3. Joining interest groups 4. Identifying issues 5. Making political contributions 6. Lobbying government officials
75. Which international issues would require local government officials to act? Public health concerns in the event of a pandemic Public safety in the event of an act of terrorism Economic development policies in response to the emerging global economy Policies to protect the environment (wildlife protection)
76. What are the 3 basic economic questions all societies must answer? 1. What will be produced? 2. Who will produce it? 3. For whom will it be produced
77. What does “scarcity” mean? The inability to satisfy all wants at the same time
78. Name and describe the 4 major economic systems. Command - government controlled Free Market - no government control Mixed - individuals, businesses, and government interact Traditional - hunting, farming, and fishing
79. What type of economy does the United States have? Mixed
80. What are the 5 essential characteristics of the United States economy? Free Market Competition Profit Consumer Sovereignty Private Property
81. Describe what “choice” and “opportunity cost” mean in the U.S. economy. Opportunity cost is what is given up when a choice is made
82. Define “price” and explain how it is determined in the U.S. economy. Price - the amount of money exchanged for a good or service and is determined by supply and demand
83. Name and explain the 4 resources or factors of production. Natural Capital Human-labor Entrepreneurship
84. Define incentives. Motivate people to buy a product and change economic behavior like discounts, sales, BOGO, coupons
85. Define supply and demand. Supply - the amount of a good or service that the producers are willing to sell Demand - the amount of a good or service consumers are willing to buy
86. Describe production and consumption. Production - combining resources to make goods and services Consumption - using/buying goods and services
87. List and describe the 3 basic types of business ownership in the U.S. Sole proprietorship -1 Partnership -2 Corporation - stockholders
88. How do individuals/households, businesses/producers and the government interact in the U.S. economy? They exchange money, goods, services, and resources in a continuous circular flow
89. What are private financial institutions and what do they do? Banks, credit unions, savings and loans pay interest on savings, accept deposits, and make loans Intermediaries between saver and borrowers
90. What is the role of the Federal Reserve System? To keep the economy growing at a stable and steady rate To control the amount of money in circulation Banks for banks and US
91. What is the role of the U.S. government in protecting consumer rights and property rights? To regulate businesses by enforcing contracts, passing laws, and creating agencies
92. Which amendment gave the government the authority to tax personal incomes of citizens? 16th
93. How do financial institutions encourage saving and investing? By paying interest on deposits/savings
94. What are public goods and services? Provided by the government for the benefit of all citizens
95. How do governments produce public goods and services? Through tax revenue
96. How does the government influence economic activity? - By taxing and spending (fiscal policy) - By controlling monetary policy (the amount of money in circulation) - By promoting competition
97. How does the United States government promote and regulate competition? - By passing laws that discourage/prohibit monopolies - By supporting new business start-ups - By encouraging global trade
98. Name and describe 3 executive branch government agencies that regulate businesses. FCC - Federal Communications Commissions - regulates TV, radio, and communications EPA - Environmental Protection Agency - protects environment FTC - Federal Trade Commission - regulates trade FTP
99. Why do Virginia and the United States trade with other nations? - To increase wealth - To obtain products they do not make themselves
100. What is the impact of technological innovation on world trade? Technology/Internet contributes to the global flow of information, capital, goods and services, and technology lowers the cost of production
Created by: 3088587
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