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Genetics

QuestionAnswer
Gene A segment of DNA that determines a trait
Alleles The different forms of a trait that a gene may have
Dominant trait The trait that is expressed, or shown, in the organism; represented by a capital letter.
Recessive trait The form of a trait that is hidden or masked; represented by a small letter
Genotype The genetic makeup of an organism; represented by a 2-letter code
Phenotype The way an organism looks or behaves; determined by its genotype
Homozygous An organism with two alleles that are the same. Ex. DD or dd
Heterozygous An organism that has two different alleles for a trait. Ex. Dd
Parent (P1) Generation The first cross of a genetic study
Filial (F1) Generation The offspring, or results, of the parent generation cross
Probability The branch of mathematics that is used to predict the chance of something happening
Punnett Square A tool used by geneticists to predict the results of a genetic cross
Purebred An organism that is homozygous for a trait
Hybrid An organism that is heterozygous for a trait
Genotype ratio The percentage of organisms with a particular genotype as determined with a Punnett square
Phenotype ratio The percentage of organisms with a particular phenotype as determined with a Punnett square
Monohybrid cross A genetic study that involves only one gene
Dihybrid cross A genetic study that involves two genes.
RR Trait: R = red flowers, r = white flowers What is the genotype of a homozygous dominant flower?
Blue eyes Trait: B = blue eyes, b = brown eyes What is the phenotype of an organism that is heterozygous?
tt Trait: T = 4-toes, t = 3 toes What is the genotype for an organism that is homozygous recessive?
Ff x Ff Trait: F = flat leaf, f = curly leaf What is the cross between two heterozygous plants?
YY x Yy Trait: Y = yellow bananas, y = green bananas What is the cross between one homozygous dominant banana plant and one heterozygous banana plant?
ww x Ww Trait: W = wrinkled seeds, w = smooth seeds What is the cross between a plant that is purebred for smooth seeds and one hybrid plant?
Created by: nbiegel