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Chpt 9

Urinary System

dia- through, between, apart, complete
-cele hernia, tumor, swelling
cyst/o urinary bladder, cyst, sac of fluid
-ectasis stretching, dilation, enlargement
glomerul/o glomerulus- cluster of capillaries surrounded by membrane called Bowman's capsule
lith/o stone, calculus abnormal mineral deposit named for organ or tissue where located
-lysis breakdown, separation, setting free, destruction, loosening
nephr/o kidney
-pexy surgical fixation
pyel/o renal pelvis, bowl of kidney
ren/o kidney
-tripsy to crush
ureter/o ureter
urethr/o urethra
-uria urination, urine
homeostasis homeo-sameness, stasis-control
urea major waste product of protein metabolism
structures of urinary system 2 kidneys, 2 ureters, 1 bladder, 1 urethra
2 layers that surround the renal pelvis renal cortex- outer layer, contains nephronsmedulla- inner layer, contains urine collecting tubules
nephrons functional units of kidneys, forms urine by filtration, contains glomerulus
urochrome uro-urine, chrome- color pigment gives normal yellow, amber, straw color
ureters narrow tubes carries urine from kidney to urinary bladder
vesic/o urinary bladder- hollow muscular reservoir for urine
urethra and urethral meatus tube from bladder to urethral meatus-external opening of urethra
micturition urination or voiding
nephrologist specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders fo kidneys
urologist specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of urinary/ genitourinary systems
renal failure kidney failure- inability of kidneys to perform their functions, damaged/destroyed nephrons result in failure
anuria anuresis- complete suppression of urine formation
uremia uremic poisoning- excessive amount of urea and waste in bloodstream
acute renal failure ARF- sudden onset of uremia, may be caused by drop in blood volume or pressure due to injury or surgery
chronic renal failure CRF- progressive disease. dialysis or transplant required
end-stage renal disease ESRD- late stages of chronic renal failure
nephrotic syndrome NS- characteristics- edema, hyperproteinuria, hypoproteinemia, hyperlipidemia
nephrosis nephropathy- nephrotic syndrome- diseases of kidney
diabetic nephropathy damage to kidney's capillary blood vessels caused by long-term diabetes mellitus
glomerulonephritis inflammation on kidneys,urine is dark brown or black, often related to autoimmune problem
hydronephrosis dilation (enlargement) of renal pelvis, result of obstruction of urine flow
nephrectasis distention (enlargement) of kidney
nephroptosis floating kidney- downward displacement of kidney (ptosis- drooping or dropping down)
nephropyosis suppuration (formation of pus) of kidney
pyelitis inflammation of renal pelvis
pyelonephritis inflammation of renal pelvis and kidney
renal colic acute pain in kidney area caused by blockage during passage of kidney stone
nephrolithiasis, cystolithiasis, ureterolithiasis stones in kidney, stones in urinary bladder, stones in ureter
hydroureter distention of ureter with urine that cannot flow because of block
ureterectasis distention (enlargement)of ureter
ureterorrhagia discharge of blood from ureter
ureterostenosis stricture (abnormal narrowing) of ureter
cystalgia, cystodynia pain in urinary bladder
interstitual cystitis inflammation within wall of bladder, cronic conditon like cystitis
cystocele hernia of bladder through vaginal wall
cystorrhagia bleeding from bladder
vesicovaginal fissure abnormal opening between bladder and vagina
epispadias congential abnormality- urethral opening is located on dorsal surface of penis or in region of clitoris
hypospadias congenital abnormality- urethral opening on undersurface of penis or in the vagina
paraspadias congenital abnormality in males- urethral opening is on one side of penis
diuresis diur- increasing output of urine, esis- abnormal condition
dysuria difficult or painful urination
enuresis involuntary discharge of urine
nocturia excessive urination during the night
oliguria, polyuria olig- scanty, poly- many, excessive
urinary retention inability to void or empty the bladder
urinary stress incontinence inability to control voiding of urine under physical stress
urge incontinence urination occurs involuntarily as soon as urgent desire is felt, caused by movement not full bladder
catheterization insertion of sterile catheter through urethra into urinary bladder
intravenous pyelogram IVP- radiographic study of kidneys and ureters where iodine is injected into a vein to define these structures more clearly
urinalysis exam of urine to determine the presence of abnormal elements
dialysis procedure to remove waste products from blood of pt whose kidneys no longer function
hemodialysis HD- filters waste products from blood, arterial blood flows through the filters of artifical kidney machine
peritoneal dialysis lining of peritoneal cavity acts as filter to remove waste from blood, dialysate solution(water and electrolytes) is run into cavity and fluid exchanged through catheter implanted in abdominal wall
continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis CAPD- dialysate solution from plastic bag under pt clothing, solution drains back into bag every 6-8 hours then bag discarded for new one.
continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis CCPD- machine cycles dialysate fluid during night while pt sleeps
nephrolysis freeing of a kidney from adhesions
adhesions band of fibers that holds structures together abnormally
lithotripsy extracorporeal (situated or occurring outside the body) shock-wave lithotripsy, ESWL- destuction of kidney stone with use of ultrasonic waves through water
nephrolithotomy surgical removal of kidney stone through an incision
cystopexy surgical fixation of bladder to abdominal wall
lithotomy surgical incision for removal of stone
meatotomy incision of urinary meatus to enlarge the opening
urethropexy surgical fixation of urethra for correction of urinary stress incontinence
urethrotomy surgical incision into urethra for relief of stricture
Created by: but7244