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Chapter 28

Cold War

TermDefinition
Détente the progressive relaxation of Cold War tensions that emerged in the early 1970s
Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan intervention in support of the Afghan communist government in its conflict with anticommunist Muslim guerrillas during the Afghan War (1978–92)
solidarity The formation of the independent trade union in response to the actions of the Communist government in raising prices for basic goods.
West Germany (Federal Republic of Germany) At the end of World War II, the Allied armies freed all the nations in this area that had been conquered by Germany.
East Germany (German Democratic Republic) Where the Soviet troops set up their political system known as Communism.
Truman Doctrine America's policy geared to containing communism to those countries already under Soviet control.
Containment A United States policy to prevent the spread of communism abroad. A component of the Cold War, this policy was a response to a series of moves by the Soviet Union to enlarge communist influence in Eastern Europe, China, Korea, Africa, and Vietnam.
Marshall Plan American plan for providing economic aid to western Europe to help it rebuild.
Fall of Soviet Union Occurred on December of 1991; 15 states separated from the Soviet Union and each became their own country.
Boris Yelstin a Russian politician and was also the first president of Russia from 1991-1999
Revolutions of 1989 marked the death knell of communism in Europe.The collapse of communism in east central Europe and the Soviet Union marked the end of the Cold War.
German reunification restructuring Germany’s postwar political order to allow for the annexation of a bankrupt state and a collapsing economy.
Vaclav Havel, "Velvet Revolution" anti-government protest, with students carrying banners and chanting anti-Communist slogans.Student organizers directed their message demanding the government's resignation.
Romania, Nicolae Ceausescu ruled Romania according to orthodox Communist principles, causing food shortages by forcing the export of most of the country's agricultural products.
Joseph Stalin A dictator of the USSR from 1929-1953;under his role the Soviet Union was transformed from a peasant society into an industrial and military superpower
Yalta Conference Took place in a Russian resort town in the Crimea from February 4–11, 1945, US President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin made decisions regarding the future progress of the war and postwar
Potsdam Conference The last WWII meeting in which American president, British prime minister and Soviet premier negotiated terms for the end of WWII in 1945
"Iron Curtain" Speech Britain's Prime Minister, Churchill traveled by train with President Harry Truman to make a speech on March 5, 1946,one of the opening volleys announcing the beginning of the Cold War.
De-stalinization Refers to a process of political reform in the Soviet Union that took place after the death of head of state Joseph Stalin in 1953.
Hungarian Uprising, 1956 On October 23rd 1956, students and workers took to the streets of Budapest (Hungary's capital) issued their Sixteen Points which included personal freedom, more food, the removal of the secret police, the removal of Russian control
"Space race" A competition between the Soviet Union and the U.S. from 1955 to 1972 for supremacy in space flight capability.
Lech Walesa Polish born leader and politician of the 20th century. Known for the success of Solidarity, an independent union he headed.
Pope John Paul II The first Polish born pope and non Italian pope in 450 years. He traces extensively, promoting conservative chaotic teachings while seeking reconciliation with other religious groups.
Margaret Thatcher An English political leader who became prime minister of Britain. A member of the Conservative party who stressed private enterprise and attacked socialism and the welfare state.
Ronald Reagan Tried to fix US economy;cut income taxes.Didn't cut government spending which increased the nation's debt mostly b/c of massive stockpiling of weapons during the Cold War.He argued against communism&supported nations worldwide who fought against it. When
Mikhail Gorbachev Soviet statesman whose foreign policy brought an end to the Cold War and whose domestic policy introduced major reforms (born in 1931) 1.glasnost (openness) 2. perestroika (restructuring)
glasnost Policy of openness initiated by Gorbachev in the 1980s that provided increased opportunities for freedom of speech, association and the press in the Soviet Union.
perestroika policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a market based economy and society
INF Treaty 1987 ) Another example of détente in which the USSR and USA agreed to eliminate intermediate-range nuclear weapons and conventional ground-launched ballistic and cruise missle with intermediate ranges. Signed by Reagan and Gorby.
"massive retaliation" military doctrine and nuclear strategy in which a state commits itself to retaliate in much greater force in the event of an attack.
Eastern Bloc former Communist states of Eastern and Central Europe
KGB the Soviet Union's Committee for State Security
Josip Broz Tito the leader of the resistance movement in Europe
Nikita Khrushchev Russian politician that led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War and was responsible for the de-Stalinization of the Soviet Union.
Ostpolitik German for "Eastern policy"; West Germany's attempt in the 1970's to ease diplomatic tensions with East Germany, exemplifying the policies of detente.
Brezhnev Doctrine Assertion that the Soviet Union and its allies had the right to intervene in any socialist country whenever they saw the need; justified the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968.
Willy Brandt West German Chancellor; sought peace with East Germany;
Berlin Airlift, 1948-49 A military operation in the late 1940s that brought food and other needed goods into West Berlin by air after the government of East Germany, which at that time surrounded West Berlin
NATO an organization formed in Washington, D.C. (1949), comprising the 12 nations of the Atlantic Pact together with Greece, Turkey, and the Federal Republic of Germany, for the purpose of collective defense against aggression.
Warsaw Pact A military alliance of communist nations in eastern Europe. Organized in 1955 in answer to NATO, and included Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the Soviet Union.
Dwight D. Eisenhower Allies Supreme Commander in the lead up to D-Day and in the actual landings in Normandy. He commanded the Allied forces in the last great counter-attack by the Germans in World War Two – the Battle of the Bulge.
U-2 incident Happened during the Cold War on 1 May 1960, during the presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower and the premiership of Nikita Khrushchev when a U.S. U-2 spy plane was shot down in USSR airspace.
Berlin Wall In 1961, the Soviet Union built a high barrier to seal off their sector of Berlin in order to stop the flow of refugees out of the Soviet zone of Germany. The wall was eventually torn down
Cuban Missile Crisis In Oct 1962, the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. came close to nuclear war when President Kennedy insisted that Nikita Khrushchev remove the 42 missiles he had secretly inserted in Cuba. The Soviets eventually did so, nuclear war was averted, and the crisis ended.
Prague Spring n 1962 CZ first to see national income decline; new generation had a hard time adjusting and momentum for reform growing; Novonty replaced by Alexander Dubcek; slow, cautious reform ensues ("Socialism w/ a Human Face"); USSR feels betrayed by Dubcek's all
Created by: birmingham