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MCAT Physics Ch. 11

Scientific Method Series of 8 steps for the generation of new knowledge
Initial Steps Of Scientific Method Generate a testable question, gather data and resources, and form a hypothesis
Intermediate Steps Of Scientific Method Collect new data, analyze the data, interpret the data and existing hypothesis
Final Steps Of Scientific Method Publish and verify results
FINER Method Assesses the value of a research question on the basis of whether or not it is feasible, interesting, novel, ethical, and relevant
During Research, We Manipulate: Independent variables and observe changes in teh dependent variable
Controls Used to correct for any influences of an intervention that are not part of the model
Positive Controls Ensure that a change in the dependent variable occurs when expected
Negative Controls Ensure that no change in the dependent variable occurs when none is expected.
Accuracy (Validity) Quality of approximating the true value
Precision (Reliability) Quality of being consistent in approximations
Cohort Studies Record exposures throughout time and then assess the rate of a certain outcome
Cross-sectional Studies Assess both exposure and outcome at the same point in time.
Case-control Studies Assess outcome status and then assess for exposure history
Hill's Criteria This is used to support causality in observational studies. This includes temporality, strength, dose-response relationships, consistency, plausibility, consideration of alternate explanations, experiments, specificity, and coherence
Bias Is: Systematic and results from a problem during data collection
Selection Bias The sample differs from the population. Most common in human subjects research.
Detection Bias Arises from educated professionals using their knowledge in an inconsistent way by searching for an outcome disproportionately in certain populations.
Hawthorne Effect Results from changes in behavior by the subject, experimenter, or both, which occurs as a result of the knowledge that the subject is being observed.
Confounding An error in data analysis that results from a common connection of both the dependent and independent variable to a third variable.
Four Principles Of Medical Ethics Include: Beneficence, nonmaleficence, respect for patient autonomy, and justice.
Respect For Persons Includes: Autonomy, informed consent, and confidentiality
Justice Dictates: Which study questions are worth pursuing and which subjects to use
Beneficence Requires: People to do the most good with the least harm.
Equipoise A lack of knowledge about which arm of the research study is better for the subject. This is required for any intervention of a study to take place.
Populations Individuals who share a set of characteristics.
Population Data Are Called: Parameters
Samples Subset of a population that are used to estimate population data.
Sample Data Are called: Statistics
Internal Validity Identification of causality in a study between the independent and dependent variables.
External Validity The ability of a study to be generalized to the population that it describes.
Statistical Significance The low likelihood of the experimental findings being due to chance
Clinical Significance Usefulness or importance of experimental findings to patient care or patient outcomes.
Created by: SamB91