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First Aid

First Aid Study Guide

What is self aid? Emergency treatment one applies to oneself
Name some items that you might use at a splint from your military equipment Bayonet, Rifle, Entrenching Tool, Tent Poles and Stakes, Web Belt
What is the quickest way to splint a broken leg? Tie the broken leg securely to the unbroken leg
How many pressure points, which can be used to control bleeding with fingers, thumbs or hands are there on the human body? 11
What is the object of first aid? To stop bleeding, Overcome Shock, Relieve Pain, and Prevent infection,
What FM Covers First Aid FM 4-25.11
What is first aid It is the first care given to casualties before medical personnel can be made available.
What is the unique feature of type "O" blood? It is a universal donor
When would you not remove a casualties clothing to expose a wound? If in a checmical environment or if the clothing is stuck to the wound.
What soldiers are most likely to suffer heat injuries? Soldiers not accustomed to the heat, overweight soldiers, prior heat casualties, and soldiers already dehydrated due to alcohol use, diarrhea, or lack of water (insufficient use of)
How high should an injured limb be elevated above the heart to control bleeding? 2 to 4 inches
What are the lifesaving steps? (The ABC's of medical treatment) 1. Open the airway and restore breathing 2. Stop the bleeding / protect the wound 3. Prevent shock
When applying a splint, where should the bandages be tied? The bandages should be tied with knots against the splint.
Whose first aid dressing should be used on a casualty? Use the casualty's field dressing.
How should the ends of an improved pressure dressing be tied? Tie the ends together in a nonslip knot, directly over the wound site. Do Not tie so tightly that it has a tourniquet-like effect.
What is manual pressure? Manual pressure is pressure by placing a hand on the dressing and exerting firm pressure for 5 to 10 minutes. Can also be performed by a conscious casualty,
Should a casualty be given water to drink? He should not eat or drink
Why should you dress and bandage the wound as soon as possible? To protect the wound from further contamination of germs, and also to control the bleeding.
What should you do to indicate that a casualty has received a tourniquet? Mark his or her forehead with a T and if possible, note the time of the application of the tourniquet
Should you ever remove or lossen a tourniquet? No, only qualified medical personnel can do that.
Where is a tourniquet applied? Above the wound, around the limb, between the wound and the body trunk. Never place directly over wound, a fracture, or joint.
How can you prevent athlete's foot? Keep your feet clean, use foot powder and change socks daily
Name 3 categories of heat injuries Heat Cramp, Heat exhaustion, Heat stroke
What are the signs and symptoms of heat cramps? Cramping in the extremities, Abdominal cramps, excessive sweating.
What is the treatment for heat cramps? Move the casualty to a cool shady area. Loosen clothing Have him slowly drink at least 1 canteen of water. Seek medical assistance should cramps continue.
What are the signs and symptoms of heat exhaustion? Excessive sweating with pale, moist cool skin Headache Weakness Dizziness Loss of appetite Cramping Nausea Urge to defecate Chills Rapid Breathing Tingling of Hands/Feet Confusion
What would the treatment be for heat exhaustion? Move the casualty to a cool shady area. Loosen clothing or remove clothing Slowly drink 1 canteen of water. Elevate Legs If possible casualty should not participate in strenous activity. Monitor until symptoms are gone or seek medical assistance.
What are the signs and symptoms of heat stroke? Skins is red, hot, and dry Weakness Dizziness Confusion Headaches Seizures Nausea Stomach Pains or cramps Respiration and pulse may be rapid and weak Unvonsciousness and collapse may occur suddenly.
What would the treatment be for heat stroke? Move to a cool shady area. Loosen clothing/remove clothing, Pour water on him Massage extremities and skin. Elevate Legs Slowly Drink 1 Canteen of water Seek medical assistance immediately
If a casualty were suspected of having a neck/spinal injury or severe head trauma, which method would you use for opening an airway? The jaw thrust technique, because in most cases it can be done without extending the neck
What are the 2 basic types of fractures? Open (compound) Closed (simple)
What are some signs of an open fracture? Bleeding Bones sticking through skin
What are some signs of a closed fracture? Swelling Discoloration Deformity Unusual body position
With an open fracture, what should you do first? Stop the bleeding
What is the basic proven principle in splinting fractures? Splint where they lie
How tight should a tourniquet be? Tightened until the bright red bleeding has stopped
What are the 3 types of bleeding? Arterial - Blood is bright red and will spurt with each heart beat. Venous - Blood is dark red and flows in a steady stream Capillary - Blood oozes from the wound.
Name 4 common points for checking pulse Carotid - The side of the neck Femoral - The groin Radial - The wrist Posterial Tibial - The ankle
What are some signs/symptoms of shock? Clammy skin (cool, pale, damp) Restlessness and nervousness Thirst Loss of Blood Confusion Fast breathing Nausea or vomiting Blotched or bluish skin (especially around the mouth and lips) Often perspires freely May pass out
What is the treament for shock? P.E.L.C.R.N. Postions the casualty on their back Elevate the legs Loosen clothing at neck waist or wherever it is binding Climatize (prevent too hot or too cold) Reassure (keep the casualty calm) Notify medical personnel (Help, Get a medic!!)
What is a heat injury? A loss of water and salt, loss of sweat while personnel work in the heat, a general dehydration of the body.
What is the greatest preventive measure for disease? Cleanliness
How do you stop bleeding? Apply a field dressing Manual Pressure Elevate the limb Apply a pressure dressing Digital Pressure Apply a tourniquet
What is CPR? Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, it is used to restore a heart beat.
When can measures taken to restore breathing in an individual be discontinued? When a doctore tell you to stop When others relieve you When you cannot physically continue When the casualty starts to breath on his own.
What is AIDS? AIDS is the end stage of the HIV infection. At this point, the virus has attacked and weakened a person's immune system.
Name two types of rescure breathing Mouth to mouth Mouth to nose
What do the letters AIDS stand for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
When should a casualty not be placed in the shock positon? When the casualty has a: Head injury Abdominal wound Fractured (unsplinted) Leg
How long is direct manual pressure applied to control bleeding? 5 to 10 minutes.
What should you do prior to leaving an unconscious casualty? Turn their head to the side to prevent them from choking on their own vomit.
When should a tourniquet be used to stop bleeding? As a last resort when everything else has failed or when an arm or leg has been severed off
What does COLD stand for? It is a key word in cold weather protection, it stand for: Keep it Clean Avoid Overheating Weat it Loose and in Layers Keep it Dry
What are the 8 steps in evaluating a casualty? Check for: Responsiveness Breathing Pulse Bleeding Shock Fractures Burns Possible concussions (Head injuries)
What is the first indication of frostbite? Skin becomes numb and white particles/patches form on it
What do you do to treat frostbite? Remove clothing from the affected area, warm with body heat, dress the area and seek additional medical help
When should an airtight dressing be applied to a sucking chest wound? As the individual breathes out
How should you position a casualty with an open abdominal wound? On his back with his knees up to relieve abdominal pressure.
What do you do with exposed abdominal organs? Wrap them in a dry clean material and place on top of the abdomen (never tr to put them back in)
How do you take the Carotid pulse? To check the carotid pulse, feel for a pulse on the side of the casualty's neck closest to you. This is done by placeing the tips of your first two fingers beside his Adam's apple
In reference to carrying a casualty, what are the two man methods? Two Man supported carry Two Man Arms carry Two man Fore and Aft Carry Four hand Seat Carry Two Hand Seat Carry
In reference to carrying a casualty, what are the one man methods? Fireman's carry Supporting carry Arms Carry Saddleback carry Pack strap carry Pistol Belt Carry Pistol Belt Drag Neck Drag LBE Carry Using Bearers LBE LBE Carry Using Casualty's LBE Cradle Drop Drag
Should you put any medication or cream on a burn? No
Name the four types of burns Thermal Electrical Chemical Laser
What is the primary objective in the treament of burns? Lessen or prevent shock and infection
What are the 3 categories used in medical evauation? Urgent - within 2 hours Priority - within 4 hours Routine - within 24 hours
What is the first aid procedure for a white phosphorous casualty? Smother the flame by submerging the affected area in water or pack with mud. Then remove the particles by brushing or picking them out.
What is the first step in first aid of a burn victim? Remove the casualty from the source of the burn
What are the 2 prescribed methods for opening an airway The jaw thrust Head Tilt/Chin Lift methods
What is the major cause of tooth decay and gum disease Dental Plaque
What are the 9 mild symptoms of nerve agent poisoning? Unexplained runny nose Unexplained headache Sudden drooling Difficulty seeing Tighness in chest/difficulty breathing Localized sweating and muscular twitching in area of contaminated skin Stomach cramps Nausea Tachycardia followed by bradycardia
What are the 11 severe symptoms of nerve agent poisoning? Strange/confused behavior Wheezing, dyspnea, and coughing Severyly pinpointed pupils Red tearing eyes Vomiting Sever muscular twitching and weakness Involuntary urination and defecation Convulsions Unconsciousness Repiratory failure Bradycardia
Created by: BlackSheep
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