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Review Unit 4


What is the definition of a tissue? A collection of specialized cells that perform a specific function.
In what type of epithelium are goblet cells located? Simple Columnar.
What structures are found on the apical surface of most digestive cell epithelial? Microvilli and Cilia.
What happens to the epithelial cell shape as your bladder fills and stretches out? The 6 layers stretch to 3 and elongate.
What type of epithelium gives the most protection and why? Stratified Squamous because it has multiple, thick layers.
What type of epithelium has the most absorptive ability and why? ?
Why does your skin peel off in sheets after a sunburn? ?
What are the characteristics of all epithelial tissue? Attachment – closely packed, cell junctions Avascular – no blood vessels within tissue Innervated – supplied by nerve fibers Regeneration – high capability, rapid
What is the function of epithelial tissue? protection, absorption, filtration, excretion, secretion, sensory
What is the difference between endocrine and exocrine glands? (Endocrine glands.) -Secrete hormones – regulatory chemicals -Ductless -Secretions enter blood & travel to target organs
What is the difference between endocrine and exocrine glands? (Exocrine glands.) -Secrete fluids onto body surfaces or into body cavities -Ducts -Two kinds: Unicellular – Goblet cells produce & secrete mucus by exocytosis Multicellular – epithelium derived duct 3 types of secretions: -Merocrine -Apocrine -Holocrine
Explain how merocrine glands secrete their products. What part of the cell, if any, will the secretions have? -Fluid held in secretory vesicles -Exocytosis pushes fluid out -Secretion only has the fluid itself
Explain how apocrine glands secrete their products. What part of the cell, if any, will the secretions have? -Secretory vesicles in top half break off -Fluid will have membrane in it
Explain how holocrine glands secrete their products. What part of the cell, if any, will the secretions have? -Secretions accumulate until cell ruptures -Fluid contains the whole cell including nucleus
Give an example of a merocrine, apocrine, and holocrine gland. Merocrine- Sweat glands, salivary glands, pancreas. Apocrine- Mammary gland lipids. Holocrine- Sebaceous (oil) gland of skin.
What are the characteristics of all connective tissue? ?
What are the functions of all connective tissue? -Connects and hold organs in place -Fills up body spaces -Provides route for movement through body – blood vessels & nerves pass through -Keeps organs separated and organized -Protects and insulates organs
What is the ground substance, fiber, and cells in blood? Ground substance: Plasma Fibers: proteins for clotting Cells: Red blood cells, lymphocytes (WBC), platelets
What type of connective tissue is the following: tendon, external ear, blood? -Dense Connective Tissue – Dense Regular -Supporting Connective Tissue: Cartilage - ELASTIC -Fluid Connective Tissue
What is the difference between tendons and ligaments? Tendons-connects bone to muscle Ligaments-connects bone to bone
Why is losing too much adipose tissue not good? Give a specific example of what can happen. ?
Why does cartilage heal slowly compared to other types of connective tissue? Because it does not have a direct blood supply (it does not have blood vessels.)
What connective tissue fiber has the greatest strength? ?
What are the functions of areolar and adipose connective tissue? Areolar-wraps and cushions organs; holds and conveys tissue fluid Adipose-insulates & cushions; supports organs; reserve energy supply
What are the characteristics of muscle tissue? -Highly cellular -Well vascularized -Responsible for body movements -Contain MYOFILAMENTS (actin & myosin proteins)
Where would you find skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle tissues? Skeletal- Bones Cardiac- Walls of heart Smooth Muscle- Walls of hollow organs – digestive, urinary, blood vessels, uterus
What type of neural control-voluntary or involuntary-do smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle have? Smooth- involuntary Skeletal- voluntary Cardiac- involuntary
What are myofilaments and what are they composed of? The ultramicroscopic threads of filamentous proteins making up myofibrils in striated muscle. They are composed of actin and myosin proteins.
What are the functios of neuroglial cells? brings nutrients, protects & supports
What type of tissue is unable to replace itself after damage? Skeletal muscle tissue & full nerves.
What is the first step in tissue repair? Surface epithelium regenerates under scab.
What happens when inflammation occurs? ?
Describe the 4 signs of inflammation in the correct order. Redness: blood vessels dilate Swelling: tissues fill with WBC Heat: pyrogen proteins warm area Pain: nerve fibers are stretched out
What do mast cells produce? Histamine and Heparin.
Created by: Sidders