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Chapter 27

AP Euro - The Great Break: War and Revolution

Triple Alliance 1881: Italy joined Germany and Austria. Italy sought support for its imperialistic ambitions in the Mediterranean and Africa.
Russian-German Reinsurance Treaty 1887 Promised neutrality of both Germany and Russia if either country went to war with another country. Kaiser Wilhelm II refused to renew reinsurance treaty after removing Bismarck in 1890.
"splendid isolation" For Britain:After 1891, Britain was the only non-aligned power.
Anglo-Japanese Alliance 1902: Britain sought Japanese agreement to "benevolent neutrality" to counter possible Russian threat in India. It was the end of Britain's "splendid isolation"
Entente Cordiale In the face of Anglo-German naval arms race, Britain and France settled all outstanding colonial disputes in Africa. France accepted British rule of the Sudan Britain recognized French control of Morocco
Anglo-German Arms Race Militarism led to a belief in the inevitability of a general European war. British policy was to have its fleet larger than the combined fleets of any two rival nations.
Triple Entente 1907:Britain, France, and Russia Formed to check the power of the Triple Alliance Not truly a formal alliance but one done in principle.
Bertha von Suttner, Lay Down Your Arms Austrian First woman to win Nobel Peace Prize; opposed the arms race 1889 contributed to founding of Peace Societies in Austria and Germany.
Dreadnoughts New super battleships with awesome firing range and power
Kruger Telegram 1902:triggered British anger at Germany when the Kaiser congratulated the Boers on their victories over British troops in South Africa.
Algeciras Conference 1906:settled the First Moroccan Crisis. Kaiser had urged Moroccan independence despite its being a French colony Britain and Italy supported French dominance in Morocco and Tunisia.
Second Moroccan Crisis, 1911 German gunboat sent to Morocco to protest French occupation of the city of Fez. Britain once again supported France Some observers believed this conflict would escalate into a world war.
“sick man of Europe” The Ottoman Empire receded from the Balkans leaving a power vacuum.
Pan-Slavism A nationalistic movement to unite all Slavic people, encouraged the Serbs, Bosnians, Slovenes, and Croats to seek a single political entity in Southern Europe.
Young Turks Led by Ataturk(Mustafa Kemal Pasha)set up a parliamentary government in the Ottoman Empire.
First Balkan Crisis (Bosnian Crisis) The Young Turks. 1908 Austria annexed Bosnia-H while Russia failed to gain access , leaving Serbia frustrated War was averted because Russia was not yet ready and France was not willing to fight over the Balkans
First Balkan War, 1912 Serbia, Greece, and Bulgaria allied to successfully drive the Turks out of the Balkans. Serbia sought port access to the Adriatic Sea but was rebuffed when Austria created the state of Albania to block Serbia.
Battle of the Somme, 1916 Began in July. British and French offensive to break through the German lines Losses of men: Britain 420,000; France 200,000; Germany 650,000
Erich Remarque, All Quiet on the Western Front, 1929 Later illustrated the horrors trench warfare.
new weapons Machine gun Tanks Airplane Poison Gas U-boats Zeppelins Radio
Eastern Front 1. Generals Hindenburg and Ludendorff 2. The Russians were poorly organized and suffered horrific casualties at the hands of the Germans. 3. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, 1917
Generals Hindenburg and Ludendorff These two generals defeated invading Russian armies at Tannenberg. They are German.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, 1917 Vladimir Lenin, after the Bolshevik Revolution, took Russia out of the war but was forced to give Germans 1/4 of Russian territory.
Gallipoli campaign, 1915 British and Australian forced failed to take Dardanelles as a step toward taking Constantinople. 200,000 British troops killed or wounded.
T.E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia) British officer who scored major victories in the middle east to weaken the Turks.
British naval blockade Goal was to strangle Central Powers. By war's end the ______ succeeded in strangling Germany, resulting in thousands of German deaths due to starvation.
U-boats Submarines, initially used by Germany, had devastating effects on Allied shipping throughout the war.
Lusitania 1915: U-boats sank a British passenger liner killing 1,200(including 128 Americans)
unrestricted submarine warfare a type of naval warfare in which submarines sink vessels such as freighters and tankers without warning, as opposed to attacks per prize rules.
Archangel expedition, 1918 The Allies sought to prevent a Bolshevik victory during Russian civil war by invading Russia from Murmansk in the north. Allies also sent troops into Siberia to prevent Japanese control of the region, rescue thousands of marooned Czech soldiers....
“Total war” This involved mass civilian populations in the war effort.
Georges Clemenceau In France, he created a dictatorship during the war.
Italia Irredenta (“unredeemed Italy”) Austrian and Balkan territory--- and some German colonies and Turkish territories.
Zimmerman Telegram Germany proposed an alliance with Mexico against the U.S. Mexico would receive much of the southwestern U.S if the Central Powers won.
Balfour Note, 1917 Arab and Jews in Palestine were promised autonomy if they joined the Allies. Britain declared sympathy for idea of a Jewish homeland in Palestine. New policy seemed to contradict British support for Arab nationalism.
Second Balkan War, 1913 Bulgaria was angered that Serbia and Greece had acquired significant territory in Macedonia and thus attacked both countries. Austria, with German support against Russia, prevented Serbia from holding onto Albania. Russia was humiliated.
“Third Balkan War” between Austria and Serbia became World War I in the summer of 1914.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand June 28,1914: Austrian heir to throne, was assassinated by Serbian nationalist Princip while visiting Bosnia-Herzegovina.
Princip, “Black Hand” A Serbian nationalist, was a member of the "Black Hand". Killed the Archduke Franz Ferdinand.
Kaiser Wilhelm II German emperor (kaiser) and king of Prussia from 1888 to the end of World War I in 1918, known for his frequently militaristic manner as well as for his vacillating policies.
“blank check” When Kaiser Wilhelm II pledged unwavering support to Austria to punish Serbia.
Central Powers Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire(also Bulgaria)
Allies Triple Entente:Britain, France, Russia(later, Japan, Italy and U.S.)
Western Front Schlieffen Plan Trench warfare Technological advancements in war increased casualties.
Schlieffen Plan German military plant to invade France through Belgium, defeat France quickly(6 weeks) by sweeping around Paris, and then redeploy to the east to defeat Russia.
Battle of the Marne, 1914 After Germans came within sight of Paris, French and British forces pushed the German forces back. French army led by General Joseph Joffre. The battle represented the end of mobility on the Western Front.
trench warfare It resulted in a stalemate and lasted 4 bloody years.
Battle of Verdun, 1916 Germany sought a battle of attrition that would "bleed France white" and force it to sue for peace. France lost 540,000; Germany lost 430,000 General Petain's leadership of French forces made him a national hero.
Woodrow Wilson He was the 28th U.S president. He led the U.S. during World War I.
Fourteen Points Abolish secret treaties, freedom of the seas, remove economic barriers, reduction of armament burdens, promise of independence, international organization to supply collective security, Adjustment of Italy's borders along ethnic lines, and 7 more points.
“self-determination” Promise of independence
Meuse-Argonne offensive, 1918 Germans transferred divisions from the east(after defeating Russia)to the western front and mounted a massive offensive. U.S. entered war in time to assist Britain and France in stopping the German offensive.
Paris Peace Conference, 1919 Britain, France, US, and italy. Central Powers were excluded from negotiations since France was concerned with its future security. Italy left the conference angry it would not get some territories it had been promised in 1915.
Big Four Versailles Treaty Mandates created for former colonies and territories of the Central Powers. Article 231
Article 231 Placed sole blame for war on Germany; Germany would be severely punished.
League of Nations Germany and Russia were not included. The U.S. Senate failed to ratify resulting in U.S. isolationism. Was born as a mere shadow of what it had originally been intended to achieve.
John Maynard Keynes, The Economic Consequences of the Peace, 1919 Predicted the harsh terms of the treaty would hurt Germany's economy, and thus the economy of the rest of Europe, and lead to significant future political unrest.
Easter Rebellion, 1916 Irish republican insurrection against British government in Ireland, which began on Easter Monday, April 24, 1916, in Dublin.
Created by: Jrod42