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Spinal Cord

The Nervous System- Spinal Cord

QuestionAnswer
Spinal Cord Descends from the Medulla Oblongata thru Foramen Magnum Passes thru the vertebral canal to level of 2nd lumbar vertebra
Conus Medullaris Terminal portion of the spinal cord
Filum Terminale Fibrous extension of the pia mater anchors the spinal cord to the coccyx
Denticulate ligaments Delicate shelves of pia mater attached to the spinal to the vertebrae
Spinal Nerves 31 pairs attached to the cord by paired roots
Cervical and lumbar enlargements sites where nerves serving the upper and lower limbs emerge
Cauda E/qui/na Collection of nerve roots which extend at the inferior end of the vertebral canal
Spinal Cord Has gray matter in the form of an "H" and white matter arrahged in colums
Gray Matter(myelinated axons) in Spinal Cord Internal and Butterfly shaped= Areas of communication between one myelinated neuron to another myelinated neuron
Central Canal of the Spinal Cord Contains cerebrospinal fluid
Anterior(Ventral) Horn (front of the "H") Somatic motor neurons (goes down the front) (cell bodies outside the spinal)
Posterior(Dorsal) Horn (back of the"H") Mostly sensory & (Visceral) sends information to and from out internal organs (cell bodies inside the spinal cord)
3 Columns on each side of the spinal cord Anterior, Posterior and Lateral Column. Columns are composed of several nerve tract
White matter surrounding the gray matter in the Spinal Cord myelinated axons with similar function as gray matter
Ascending (sensory) Tracts (crosses over at the spinal cord) Takes information up the spinal cord (from skin receptors travel thru the spinal cord to the cerebral cortex)
Descending (motor) Tracts (crosses over at the Medulla Oblongata) Takes information down the spinal cord (from the cerebral cortex cross over at the medulla and travel to the spinal cord out to muscles)
Anatomy of the PNS A nerve arranged similarly to a muscle with fascicles and connective tissues inside
Endoneurium The innermost layer of connective tissue in a peripheral nerve, forming an interstitial layer around each individual fiber outside the
Epineurium The outermost layer of connective tissue of a peripheral nerve
Perineurium Intermediate layer of connective tissue in a peripheral nerve, surrounding each bundle of nerve fibers
Types of Nerves Sensory- Afferent only Motor- Efferent only Mixed- Both
Cranial Nerve 12 pairs of cranial nerves attached directly to the brain. Can be classified as sensory, motor or both
Ganglia Groups of neuron cell bodies
Olfactory Nerve (CN I) Sensory Sensory for Smell
Optic Nerve (CN II) Sensory Sensory for Vision
Oculonotor Nerve (CN III) Motor Motor for eye movement
Trochlear Nerve (IV) Motor Motor for eye movement
Trigeminal Nerve (V) Both Sensory for pain, touch, and temperature for the eye and lower and upper jaw. Motor for muscles for chewing
Abducens Nerve (VI) Motor Motor for eye movement
Facial Nerve (VII) Both Sensory for taste
Auditory Nerve (VIII) Sensory Sensory for hearing and equilibrium
Glossopharyngeal Nerve (IX) Both Sensory for taste Motor for swallowing
Vagus Nerve (X) Both Sensory and motor for organs in the thoracic and abdominal cavities
Accessory Nerve (XI) Motor Motor for trapezius, sternocleidomastoid and muscles of the larynx
Hypoglossal Nerve (XII) Motor Motor for tongue
Spinal Nerve (PNS) 31 pairs of spinal nerves attach to the spinal cord by dorsal(sensory) and ventral(motor) roots
Dermatomes each sensory nerve is responsible for sending the messages from a specific area of the skin
Autonomic Nervous System helps maintain our internal conditions. In the PNS is subdivided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisons
Autonomic Nervous System Effects cardiac muscle, smooh muscle and glands Uses involuntary reflexes. Most organs are innervated by both: except sweat glands and blood vessels Sypathetic only
Sympathetic Divison (Fight or Flight) Has a chain of Ganglia and prepares the body for physical activity
Chain Ganglia Area of cell bodies on either side of the spinal cord (where areas talk to eachother to have involuntary responses)
Parasympathetic (calms you back down) Sends messages for everyday body maintenance functions such as digestion and elimination of waste.
Ganglia in Parasympatheic Divison Is close to the organ that there serving. more on taking care of each individual organ
Nerve Impulses A nerve impulses starts as an electrical impulse that travels down the neuron and results in the release of a chemical neurotransmitter at the synaptic knob
Resting Membrance Potential The basis for a nerve impulse and must be maintained
Polarized Membrane (cell membrane) The outside is the positive and the inside is negative
Depolarization Sodium flows into the cell. The cell becomes more positive
Repolarization Potassium flows out of the cell. The call becomes more negative
Local Potential Starts at the dendrites and travels toward the trigger zone. At the dendrites it is graded
Graded Strength determined by the amount of ion flow
Decrimental Effects decrease with distance
Reversible Returns to normal after simulation
Excitatory or Inhibitory Can result in Depolarization or Hypopolarization(way polarized)
Action Potential Travels from the trigger zone to the synaptic knob. stimulas has to be all or nothing. are not graded, decrimental or reversible. Myelination helps action potential speed singal to go as fast as it can down
Reflexes An involuntary predictable motor response to a stimulas without conscious thought
Reflex Arc Involve a receptor, an afferent sensory neuron, an integration center in the CNS, an efferent motor neuron and a effector
Afferent Neuron (sensory) A neuron that has an action potential carrying the signal to the CNS
Integating Canter Either the brain or spinal cord
Efferent Neuron (motor) A neuron that has an action potential carrying a signal away from the CNS
Effector The structure causing the effect
Skeletal Muscle Somatic Reflex
Galnd, Smooth Muscle or Cardiac Muscle Autonomic Reflex
Nutritional Requirement Sodium and potassium are needed thru out life to maintain resting membrane potential. Fat is necessary in the diet especially children ensures proper myelination of devloping neurons
Aging of CNS Cognitive ability increases in the young, remains stable in adulthood and declines in old age
Created by: myrnasGirl3