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CNS

Central Nervous System

QuestionAnswer
Sensory Division (Afferent) Carries impulses from sensory receptors to the CNS. (Brings information to the brain)
Motor Division (Efferent) Carries impulses from the CNS to effectors. (Takes information away from the brain)
Motor Division has 2 subdivisions used to control the body Somatic Nervous System and the Autonomic Nervous System
Somatic Nervous System Voluntary control of skeletal muscles
Autonomic Nervous System (don't have conscious control over) Involuntary control of cardiac muscle, smooth muscle and glands
Anatomical Division CNS and the PNS
CNS Brain and Spinal Cord (the control center)
PNS all the nerves outside the brain and the spinal cord (consist of nerves and sensory receptors
Neurons have 3 parts Cell bodies, dendrites and axons
Dendrites Receives information (talk to other cells)
Cell bodies Takes the information from the dendrites and responds
Axons Electrical impulses get transmitted down
Types of Neurons Multipolar, Bipolar and Unipolar
Multipolar Neurons Has several dendrites, single axon and neurons located in the brain and spinal cord
Bipolar Neurons 1 dendrites and 1 axon, occurs in the sensory portions of the body (we use to see, hear and smell)
Unipolar Neurons One single process extending from the cell body. Go to our skin and organs
Neuroglia Support and help the neurons function
4 Neuroglial Cells in the CNS Oligodendrocytes, Ependymal, Astocytes and Microglia
Oligodendrocytes Create Myelin in the CNS
Ependymal Cells Line the CNS to produce the CSF in the CNS
Astrocytes Forms the brain blood barrier in the CNS(cover the blood supply and helps fight toxins)
Microglia Fights Pathogens( filter out things that should not be in the CNS
2 Neuroglial Cells in the Peripheral Nervous System Schwann Cells and Satellite Calls
Schwann Cell Produce the myelin in the PNS
Satellite Cells Helps control the environment for ganglia
Me/nin/ges Fibrous membrane that protect the brain and spinal cord. Dura mater, Arachnoid mater and Pia mater
Dura Mater (Latin for strong mother) Tough outer surface attached to the cranial bones. Forms protective tube in vertebral canal
Arachnoid Mater Middle layer, Thin web like. Does not penetrate smaller depression like the pia
Subarachnoid Space Between the Arachnoid mater and Pia mater. Filled with Cerebrospinal Fluid
Pia Mater Attached directly to the brain and spinal cord. Thin innermost layer. Contains blood vessels to nourish the brain and spinal cord
Cerebrospinal Fluid Protects the brain, provides buoyancy(balance) and cushion for the brain. provides chemical balance by removing waste. provides nutrients
Ventricles produce and circulate the CSF
2 Lateral Ventricles within the choroid plexuses where the CSF is produced
3rd Ventricle Midline of diencephalon
4th Ventricle Midline of brain stem
Flow of CSF Lateral Ventricle- to 3rd- to 4th- to the central canal or subarachnoid space
Cerebal Cortex Gray matter, Outer surface, cell bodied and unmyelinated fibers nerve acting to transmitt impulses down the unmyelinated fibers to the myelinated fibers beneath
White Matter beneath the Cortex Helps transmit impulses between the hemispheres of the brain(left and right side) and other areas of the brain
Cerebrum Characterized by Gyri(fold) and Sulci(grooves). divided into hemispheres that are further divided into 4 lobes
Left and Right Cerebral Hemispheres Separated by longitudinal fissure. Connected by Corpus Callosum(bundles of white matter)
Cerebral Hemisphere divided by 4 lobes Frontal Lobe, Parietal Lobe, Temporal Lobe and Occipital Lobe, Insula
Frontal Lobe (motor area) Premotor- planner, Primary motor- sends the message. Broca area- interprets out going lanuage. executive function
Parietal Lobe General sensory, primary sensory area, high level reasoning(problem solving)
Temporal Lobe Hearing, Wernicke's area- interprets incoming lanuage
Occipital Lobe Vision
Insula
Limbic System Complex of very deep nuclei inside the brain. Involved in memory and emotions
Hippocampus (Memory) Immediate memory last a few seconds short term memory lasts a few seconds to a few hours(forgetting results if distracted Long term memory results from chemical changes
Amygdala (Emotions) Emotional behaviors, malfunctions can result in mood disorders
Long Term Memory (Hippocampus) Results from cellular changes including the growth of dendrites and the formation of new connections
Diencephalon Thalamus and Hypothalamus
Thalamus Acts as a switching station for incoming sensory messages Directs the sensory messages to the apporiate lobe of the cerebrum
Hypothalamus Monitors the internal environment and helps regulate homeostasis
Hypothalamus Helps temperature regulation, heart rate, digestive and uninary function
Hypothalamus Helps with hormone production, food and water intake and sexual developement
Brainstem Medulla Oblongata, pons, midbrain and reticular formation
Medulla Oblongata lowest section of the brainstem. All sensory(incoming) and motor(outgoing) information passes thru.
Medulla Oblongata Regulates heart rate, respiratory rate and blood vessel. controls vomiting
Pons bridges motor tracts to the cerebellum(talks to the cerebellum)
Midbrain bulges called colliculi on back surface. top 2 control visual reflexes bottom 2 control auditory reflexes
Reticular Formation Helps with sleep-wake and arousal
Cerebellum 2 hemispheres connected by Vermis. Helps posture, balance and control. refelxive memory
Cerebellum Second largest brain region. Damage results in loss of equilibrium, muscle coordination and muscle tone
Created by: myrnasGirl3