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Chapter 12 and 13

What does the right side of the heart do? Pumps blood into lungs and back to the left side of the heart thru vessels of the pulmonary circulation
What does the left side of the heart do? pumps blood into all other tissues of the body and back to the right side of the heart through vesses of the systematic circulation
Describe the serosa of the heart The serosa is the portion covering the heart surface it's the parietal and visceral pericardium (lining the fibrous pericardium)
What is the nore pericardial fluid? helps reproduce friction as heart moves with in the pericadum (produced by serous pericadium)
Describe the External heart: Coronary Sulcus: between atria and venticles (dog ears), Intraventricular Sulcus: intraventricular, Veins into atria, arteries out of ventricles
Describe the Internal Heart Atria (inflow reservoirs), Ventricles (outflow pumps)
Describe the heart valves for one way flow, Atrioventricular: Tricuspid (right), Bicuspid (left). Semilunar valves: Pulmonary-right ventricle to lung, Aortic- left ventircle to aorta
Describe the mapquest of the heart Pulmonary (the short trip), Systemic (the long trip)
Describe cardiac blood supply 2 Coronary Arteries (from aorta, supply blood to wall of heart) and cardiac veins ( coronary sinus to right atrium, drain blood from cardiac muscle)
Describe the Electricity of the cell of the heart Action Potentions in cardiac muscle consists of depolariation plateu and repolarization phases. Cadiac muscle does not repolarize as rapidly as skeletal muscle b/c of plateu phase
Describe the Electricity of the organ of the heart conduction system from Pacemaker cells: SA node and AV node
Describe the Electricity of the Mapquest of the heart SA node to atria and intraventricular septum (at septum) AV node to AV bumndle to bundle branches ( R&L) bundle branches to Right and Left ventricles (via purkinje fibers)
How do the letters of the Electrocardiogram (EKG) go? P- QRS-T-P-QRS-T
What does the P in an EKG stand for? Atrial Depolarization (before contraction) - depolarization of atrial myocardium at begining of P waves processed on set of atrial contraction
What does the QRS in an EKG stand for? Ventricular Depolarization (before contraction) results from depolarization of ventricles and begining of QRS complex
What does the T in an EKG stand for? Ventricular repolarization (before relaxation) represents repolarization of ventricles and beginging of the T waves pecedes ventricular relaxation
Describe the heart sounds 1st: closing the AV valves, 2nd: closing the semilunar valves
Described the abnormal heart sounds Murmur: vavle does not close tightly, Stenosis (swishing sound) : valve opening is narrowed
What is the calculations for regulation of heart function? Cardiac Output (ml/min) = Heart Rate(beats/min) X Stroke Volume (ml/beat)
Describe Extrinsic Regulation
What is a Barareceptor Reflex? (baroreceptors are strech receptors) in wall of carotid artery and aorta. The baroreceptor neurons go to the cardioregulatory center of the medulla oblongota to change the acticvity of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves to the heart
What happens with increased BP in the heart? increased BP to increased sensory signal to medulla to a) increased parasympathetic stim b) decrease sympathectic stimulus
What happens with decreased BP in the heart? Decreased BP to decreased sensory signal to medulla a) decrease parasympathetic stim b) increase sympathetic stimulus
Describe Chemorecptor Reflex chemoreceptors in medulla easure changes in blood pH and PCO2
Decreased pH (increased CO2) to Increased sym activity to increased BP
Increase pH (decreased CO2) to decreased symp. activity to decreased BP
Smp Regulation of BP is Heart + BV
Parasym is Heart only
What is the Network Structure of BV & Circulation? Artery to arteriole to capillary to venule to vein
What are the 3 layers of a BV? inner T. intima (squamous epith), middle T. media (smooth muscle, thicker in artery, thinner vein), outer T. adventita aka T externa (Collagen connective tissue)
An Artery is a resistance vessel, a vein is a capatance vessle
Describe the structure of a Capillairy endothelium (for diffusion), diameter of 1 RBC, local control of flow by pre-capillary sphincters
Describe Capillary Exchange Fluid Movement Out: BP, FM IN: Osmotic Pressure
How does the Fluid movement in and Capillary Exchange go? Net flow (arterial end): OUT from capillary, Net Flow (venous end): IN to capillary
Describe the local control of blood flow Capillaries are not intervates,C sphincters are regulated by metabolic needs so Relaxation of sphincters increases local circulation and contraction of sphincters decreases local circulation
Describe the Nervous and Hormonal control of blood flow Autonomic Symp innervation of most blood vessels CNS control in medullary Vasomotor Center. Increased "vasomotor tone" increases BP and Decreased decreases BP. In most tissues, NE causes vasoconstriction but NE vasodilation in Skeletal muscle tissue
Describe the control of blood flow in the basoreceptors Stimulis (pressure), receptor sites, CNS processor, effector, response
What are the 3 Stimuli of chemoreceptors? 1. O2 to increased O2 to decreased BP 2. CO2 to increased CO2 to increased BP 3. pH to decreased pH to increased BP
What are the receptor sites in Chemoreceptors? medulla at coarated artery and aorta
Where is the CNS processor in a chemoreceptor? Medulla
What is the effector organ for chemoreceptors? Heart and vessels
What are the 4 hormones adrenal medullary ,renin angiotensin aldosterone, ADH, ANP
Describe the Adrenal Medullary Mechanism releasing epinephrine and small amounts of norepinephrine into the blood. theyre neuron that secrete hormones from the cell to regulate another.
Describe renin angiotensin aldosterone see notes
Describe ADH see notes
Describe ANP see notes
What causes ADH osmolarity
Created by: corrina_



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