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HU 449 Exam I Vocab

German History Vocab Exam I

This was a German nationalist idea that advocated a united German nation state that included the German-seaking districts of present-day Austria Grossdeutschand
This was a German nationalist idea prevalent in the nineteenth century that advocated the union of all German states except Austria into a single political entity. This was essentially the pan that Otto von Bismarck adopted in 1871. Kleindeutschland
This is a German phrase that translates as "central European location," and it refers to Germany's lack of secure, clearly defined borders over the centuries due to the open nature of the terrain in Central Europe Mitten in Europa
This area in western Germany is the country's industrial heartland, primarily due to the large amount of bituminous coal there Ruhr Valley
This was an event that stated in Britain in the 1700s and in Germany and mainland Europe in the early 1800s. It was characterized by the gradual change to the factory system of production as well as urbanization. Industrial Revolution
This was created by the Maastricht Treaty of 1992. It had its origin in several earlier European economic organizations, and it has broken down many economic and political barriers between European nations. European Union
This is a term coined by Winston Churchill that referred to the division of Europe between those free and democratic countries in West Europe and those under Soviet domination in East Europe. Iron Curtain
This is the name of Germany’s lower house of parliament, and it means Federal Assembly. Bundestag
This is the name of the upper house of the German parliament, and its members are appointed by the sixteen states, or länder of the German federal union. Bundesrat
This is an early human species that inhabited what is today Germany and other parts of Europe about a quarter million years ago Neanderthals
This is a term that denotes a very ancient group of people who arose in the Caucasus Mountains roughly 5000 years ago. They were the ancestors of virtually all modern Europeans to include the Germans. Indo-European
This term applies to those languages that can trace their origins back to the original Germanic tribes who once inhabited Scandinavia in the period before the birth of Christ. Germanic Languages
This man was a first century Roman chronicler and historian whose work Germania tells us a great deal about the semi-nomadic German tribes who lived to the northeast of the Roman frontiers. Tacitus
This battle was fought in 9 A.D., and it was won by an alliance of German tribes that destroyed three Roman legions. This made the Rhine River a relatively permanent boundary between Rome and Germany, and thus, Germany and its western neighbors. Battle of Teutoburg Forest
Among Germanic tribes, this was a retinue of warriors who attached themselves to a tribal chieftain or subchieftain. In exchange for their service, the warriors received a share of the spoils in war and the protection and loyalty of the chieftain (or sub) Comitatus
This was a dynasty of Frankish kings that ruled from the 700s AD to the 800s AD. The Frankish kingdom reached its greatest extent under this dynasty, which included Charlemagne. Carolingians
This man was the greatest of the Frankish kings and a member of the Carolingian dynasty. The Frankish kingdom reached its largest extent under his leadership, and he was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by the pope on Christmas Day in the year 800 AD. Charlemagne
This treaty in 843AD divided up the old Frankish kingdom among Charlemagne's heirs and laid the basis for the later states of France and Germany Treaty of Verdun
This was an oat of loalty that a vassal pledged to his lord and that a lord pledged to his vassal. It served as the foundation for the network of personal relationships that characterized the feudal system of the Middle Ages in Europe Fealty
This was the land a vassal received from his lord in exchange for miliarty service. A ____ could be as larg Fief
These were commoners during the Middle Ages, particularly the Early Middle Ages, who were attached for their entire lives to the service of a noble lord. They had to provide their lords with a certain amount of labor each year and could not... Serf
This was a law that was unique to German lands. It allowed the sons of knights to inherit the smaller fiefs. This allowed knights to emerge as a distinct social class between the high nobility and the serfs Constitutio de feudis
This was a unique social class in German lands. These were men who were orginally serfs who were given responbility by a powerful lord such as managing a manor. They eventually became a lower nobility roughly equal with knights, and many held fiefs... Ministeriales
This man was the king of the East Frankish Kingdom who was elevated by the pope to the position of the Holy Roman Empire in 962. Otto I
This man was the greatest of the Hohenstaufen and kings and was called "Barbarossa"" or Red Beard Frederick I
This was a long-running battle between the popes and the Holy Roman emperors over the issue of appointing high church officials such as bishops in German lands. In the end, the popes were able to retain the power of appointment of high church officials... Investiture Contest
This was a document approved by the nobility of the Holy Roman Empire in 1356. It formalized the election of the Holy Roman Emperor, which had in fact been happening on a less formal basis since 1257. This practice insured that the elected emperors... Golden Bull
These were persons who were the inhabitants of the towns in medieval Germany; they tended to be craftsman, merchants, bankers, and others engaged in commerce. This term is also used to denote the ruling class of German towns in the Middle ages. ... Burghers
This was a league of cities in northern Europe that was founded in 1271 and lasted until 1669. It stretched from France to Russia, and cities within the league did not tax or put tariffs on each other's goods, which included furs, cloth, lumber, amber,etc Hanseatic League
During the High and Late Middle Ages in Germany, these were alliances made between different princes and nobles within the Holy Roman Empire. THese alliances often warred against one another. Circles
Also known as the Reichstag, this was an imperial assembly within the Holy Roman Empire attended by the emperor, nobles, bishops, and burghers that sought to discuss and make recommendations upon issues affecting the empire. It was not convened... Diet
This is the name of the family that ruled over the province of Brandenburg from 1417 onward and later in 1525 acquired the territory of Prussia Hohenzollern
During the Middle Ages this body was composed of the electors, nobles, bishops, and burghers of the towns within the Holy Roman Empire. During the Middle Ages and the period of the Reformation, it was usually referred to as the Diet... Reichstag
These were local assemblies within the Holy Roman Empire in which ruling lords met with representatives of the various privileged classes in the realm. The cooperation from the privileged classes was vital to the raising of taxes by local lords andprinces Landtage
These were the hereditary dominions of the Habsburgs and consisted of Austria proper Erblande
These were members of a German banking family from Augsburg. They frequently lent money to the Habsburgs so that additional lands could be conquered and added to the Habsburg domains Fuggers
These are good deeds done by sinners to make up for the damage their sins cause. However, in Martin Luther's day, these were printed on paper and sold for cash, and the Catholic Church encouraged the faithful to believe that by purchasing these... Indulgences
This man was the Duke of Saxony and one of the seven electors of the Holy Roman emperor. He protected Martin Luther and prevented him from being persecuted as a heretic, and this allowed Luther's movement to grow. Frederick the Elector
This man was the second major figure in the Protestant Reformation. He wrote the Institutes of the Christian Religion in 1536 which outlined his principal doctrine of salvation known as Predestination Jean Calvin
This document, signed by Protestant leaders in Augsburg in 1630, laid out the major doctrines and religious tenets of the Lutheran Churtch Augsburg Confession
This was a relatively spontaneous uprising in 1525 among German peasants (as well as some urban artisans and clergy) against the religious rule of the Catholic Church as well as the secular rule of the German nobility. Although the peasants had a 300,000. Peasants' War
This was an inconclusive war fount by Lutheran princes who formed the Leauge of the Scmalkalden in order to preserve the gains of the Protestand Reformation in the Holy Roman Empire. CHarles V was unable to Schmalkaldic War
This was a treaty signed in 1555 at the conclusion of Charles V's war against the Lutheran Schamlkaldic League. By this treaty, both the Lutheran and Catholic churches were recognized within the Holy Roman Empire. Peace of Augsburg
This was the 1648 treaty that ended the Thirty Year's War Peace of Westphalia
This man ruled Brandenburg-Prussia from 1640-1688 and laid the foundation for an absolutist state by creating a standing army, imposing a new system of taxes, and ending the practice of calling diets Elector Frederick William
This was the very efficient system devised by the "Soldier King" Frederick William I of Brandenburg-Prussia. It consisted of organizing peasants for military training and service who could constitute a satisfactory reserve that... times of war Canton System
This was the tradition in Brandenburg-Prussia whereby the novels, or junkers, were given considerable power over their peasants (who were really serfs) in exchange for giving up all political power to the king Gutsherrschaft
This was the period in Europe during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries when there was an unquestioned faith in science to solve mankind's problems. There was also the development of liberal -> democracy in the Western World Englightenment
These were German theologians such as Philipp Jakob Spener who stressed a Christianity that focused on personal relationship with God and Christ through knowledge of the scriptures. These theologians "purified" Protestantism Pietists
This man was a German Enlightenment figure whose greatest contribution was the development of calculus, which he developed independently of Isaac Newton Gottfried Leibniz
This man is considered the greatest of German writers who wrote great works of literature and drama as well as works that covered topics as diverse as theology and science. This greatest literary works include Faust and Sorrows of Young Werther Johann von Goethe
Created by: savelae