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Chapter 10 Blood

TermDefinition
Blood “The river of life”, transports everything that must be carried from one place to another within the body - nutrients, hormones, wastes, and body heat - through blood vessels.
Plasma The fluid portion of the blood
Buffy Coat A thin, whitish layer at the junction between the erythrocytes and plasma. This layer contains the remaining formed elements, leukocytes the white blood cells that act in various ways to protect the body, and platelets, cell fragments that stop bleeding.
Hematocrit The percentage of erythrocytes to total blood volume
Albumin A protein found in virtually all animals, the most abundant plasma protein
Erythrocytes or Red Blood Cells Ferries oxygen in blood to all cells. These cells lack a nucleus and contain very few organelles.
Hemoglobin (Hb) The oxygen-transporting pigment of erythrocytes
Anemia Reduced oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood caused by a decreased number of erythrocytes or decreased percentage of hemoglobin in the blood
Sickle Cell Anemia (SCA) Abnormal hemoglobin formed becomes spiky and sharp when red blood cells unload oxygen molecules or when the oxygen content of the blood is lower than normal
Sickle Cell Trait (SCT) A single sickle gene in a cell which is carrying it, while it does not display the symptoms it can pass on the sickling gene.
Polycythemia Presence of an abnormally large number of erythrocytes in the blood.
Leukocytes or White Blood Cells Less numerous than red blood cells and are crucial to the bodies defense against disease. Contains nucleus and organelles. Account for less than 1% of blood volume.
Diapedesis The passage of blood cells through intact vessel walls into the tissues
Positive Chemotaxis The capacity of a white blood cell to locate areas of tissue damage and infection in the body by responding to certain chemicals that diffuse from the damaged cells.
Amoeboid Motion The way that WBCs move through tissue spaces after “catching the scent” of chemicals released by infected areas of the body.
Leukocytosis A WBC count above 11,000 cells/mm3. This generally indicated a bacterial or viral infection in the body.
Leukopenia An abnormally low WBC count. Normally caused by certain drugs such as corticosteroids and anticancer agents.
Leukemia A cancerous condition in which there is an excessive production of immature leukocytes
Granulocytes Granule containing WBCs. They have lobed nuclei, made of several rounded nuclear areas connected by thin strands of nuclear material. The granules in their cytoplasm stain specifically with the Wright’s stain.
Platelets One of the irregular cell fragments of blood; involved in clotting
Hematopoiesis Formation of blood cells
Hemocytoblast A stem cell that resides in the red bone marrow
Hemostasis The stoppage of bleeding. A fast and localized response by blood vessels which also involves many substances normally present in plasma and some that are released by platelets and injured tissue cells
Thromus A fixed clot that develops and persist in an unbroken blood vessel
Embolus A thrombus that has broken away from the vessel wall and floats freely in the bloodstream. Usually not a problem unless it lodges in a blood vessel too narrow for it to pass through. A cerebral embolus may cause a stroke.
Thrombocytopenia Platelet deficiency resulting from an insufficient number of circulating platelets.
Petechlae Small purplish blotches on the skin. It can arise from any condition that suppresses the bone marrow, such as bone marrow cancer, radiation, or certain drugs.
Hemophilia An inherited clotting defect caused by absence of a blood-clotting factor
Antigen Any substance- including toxins, foreign proteins, or bacteria - that, when introduced to the body, is recognized as foreign and activates the immune system.
Antibodies A specialized substance produced by the body that can provide immunity against a specific antigen
Agglutination Clumping of (foreign) cells, included by cross-linking of antigen-antibody complexes
ABO Blood Groups Groups based on which of two antigens, type A or type B, a person inherits. Absence of both is type O blood. Having both is AB. One or the other results in the respective blo
Rh Blood Groups Blood groups that carry the Rh antigen which had first been identified in Rhesus monkeys. Anti-Rh antibodies are not automatically formed and present in Rh- people. Most Americans are Rh+
Hemolysis The rupture of erythrocytes
Physiologic Jaundice A type of jaundice which causes no major problems. Happens when an immature infant liver cannot rid the body of hemoglobin breakdown products in the bile fast enough.
Created by: ozy