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AP euro testing

euro testing

Humanism study of classical texts, values and styles of greek and Rome. promotion of liberal arts education based on the study of classics, rhetoric, and history
christian humanism studied classical texts (christian) committed to religious piety and institutional reform
vernacular the everyday language in a region or country
new monarchs european monarchs who created professional armies and a more centralized administrative bureaucracy. The new monarchs also negotiated a new relationship with the catholic church.
taille a direct tax on french peasantry
reconquista the centuries long christian reconquest of spain from the muslims
indulgence a certificate granted by the pope in return for the payment of a fee to the church, stating that the soul of the dead relative or friend of the purchaser would have his time in purgatory reduced by many years or cancelled although
anabaptist protestants who insisted that only adult baptist conformed to scripture. Protestant and catholic leaders condemned Anabaptists for advocating the complete separation of the church and state
predestination doctrine espoused by John Calvin the God has known since the beginning of time who will be saved and who will be damned.
Huguenots french protestants who followed the teachings of john calvin
politiques rulers who put political necessities above personal beliefs
Columbian exchange the interchange of plants, animals, diseases, and human populations between the old world and the new world
mercantilism economic philosophy calling for close government regulation of the economy. mercantilism theory emphasized building a strong, self sufficient economy by maximizing by maximizing exports and limiting imports
putting out system a preindustrial manufacturing system in which an entrepreneur would bring materials to rural people who worked on them in their own homes
joint stock company a business arrangement in which many investors raise money for a venture too large for any of them to undertake alone
absolutism a system of government in which the ruler claims sole and uncontestable power
divine rights of kings the idea that rulers receive their authority from God and are answerable only to God.
intendants french royal officials who supervised provincial governments in the name of the king. played a key role in establishing french absolutism
fronde a series of rebellions against royal authority in france between 1649 and 1652.
robot system of forced labor used in eastern europe
junkers prussias landowning nobility
scientific method the use of inductive logic and controlled experiments to discover regular patterns in nature
philosophes 18th century writers who stressed reason and advocated freedom of expression, religious toleration, and a reformed legal system
deism the belief that God created the universe but allowed it to operate through the laws of nature
general will a concept in political philosophy referring to the desire or interest of people as a whole
enlightened despotism a system of government supported by leading philosophes in which an absolute ruler uses his or her power for the good of the people
enclosure movement the process by which british landlords consolidated or fenced in common lands to increase the production of cash crops
agriculture revolution the innovations in farm production that began in 18th century holland and spread to england
physiocrats group of 18th century french economists led by Francois Quesnay
invisible hand phrase coined by adam smith to refer to the self regulating nature of a free marketplace
parlements french regional courts dominated by hereditary nobles
girondins a moderate republican faction active in the french revolution from 1791 to 1793
jacobins a radical republican party during the french revolution
sans-culottes the working people of paris who were characterized by their long working pants and support for radical politics
levee en masse the french policy of conscripting all males into the army. this created a type of military force based upon mass participation and a fully mobilized economy
Thermidorian reaction name given to the reaction against the radicalism of the french revolution, associated with the reign of terror and reassertion of bourgeoisie power in the directory
legitimacy the principle that rulers who have been driven from their thrones should be restored to power
balance of power a strategy to maintain an equilibrium, in which weak countries join together to match or exceed the power of a stronger country
liberalism political philosophy
Created by: beachkiki