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Anatomy Q3

Blood

QuestionAnswer
pH of blood 7.35-7.45
viscosity of blood 3.3 - 5.5
temperature of blood 100.4*F
viscosity of water 1.0
blood volume in males 5-6 liters
blood volume in women 4-5 liters
functions of blood carries respiratory gases, nutrients, & hormones helps body regulate temperature
formed elements (cellular components) of blood blood cells
fluid portion (liquid component) of blood plasma
what type of tissue is blood? connective
plasma is __% water 90
protein found in plasma that controls osmotic pressure of the circulatory system albumin
protein found in plasma that transports antibodies (immunoglobulins) globulin
blood clotting element in plasma fibrinogen
red pigment heme
oxygen-forming blood cells red blood cells
most numerous blood cells red blood cells
size of red blood cells 7.5 um in diameter
number of red blood cells in females 4.3-5.2 million per cubic millimeter
number of red blood cells in males 5.2-5.8 million per cubic millimeter
blood cell formation in red bone marrow hematopoiesis
oxygen-carrying protein hemooglobin
lifespan of a red blood cell 100-120 days
origin of red blood cells bone marrow
shape of red blood cells biconcave
blood cells that protect the body from infectious microorganisms white blood cells/leukocytes
where do leukocytes function? outside the bloodstream in loose connective tissue
circulating leukocytes leave the capillaries diapedesis
two types of leukocytes granulocytes & agranulocytes
3 types of granulocytes neutrophils, eosinophils & basophils
2 types of agranulocytes lymphocytes & monocytes
most numerous white blood cells neutrophils
white blood cells that phagocytize & destroy bacteria neutrophils
white blood cells that play a role in ending allergic reactions & parasitic infections eosinophils
granulocyte that composes 1-4% of all white blood cells eosinophils
granulocytes that secretes histamines, makes heparin & functions in inflammation mediation basophils
least numerous white blood cells (0.5%) basophils
the most important cells of the immune system lymphocytes
white blood cells that act against a specific foreign molecule (antigen) & fight infectious organisms lymphocytes
lymphocytes that attack foreign cells directly T cells (T lymphocytes)
lymphocytes that multiply to become plasma cells & secrete antibodies B cells (B lymphocytes)
agranulocytes that compose 20-45% of white blood cells lymphocytes
the largest leukocytes monocytes
agranulocytes that compose 4-8% of white blood cells monocytes
leukocytes that transform into macrophages (phagocytic cells) & eat invaders monocytes
another name for "platelets" thrombocytes
cell fragments found in blood platelets
function of platelets blood clotting
thromboplastin & calcium ions combine & convert ________ into ________ prothrombin; thrombin
thrombin helps convert ________ into _____________ fibrinogen; fibrin strands
What is the key to blood clotting? thrombin
___________ entangle blood cells in their network to stop blood escaping fibrin strands
prevents conversion of prothrombin to thrombin antiprothrombin (heparin)
What does antiprothrombin form to prevent clotting? antithrombin
What is the key to anti-clotting? heparin
How many new blood cells are formed each day? 100 billion
locations of red bone marrow epiphyses, girdles & axial skeleton
site of hemopoiesis red bone marrow
location of yellow bone marrow long bones of adults
dormant bone marrow that contains many fat cells yellow bone marrow
stem cells that give rise to lymphocytes lymphoid stem cells
stem cells that give rise to all blood cells other than lymphocytes myeloid stem cells
T/F All blood cells originate in bone marrow true
T/F All blood cells originate from blood stem cells true
a substance that can activate the immune system to make certain responses, including the production of antibodies antigen
a substance made by the body in response to stimulation by an antigen antibody
the sticking-together of antigens in little clusters agglutinatation
prevalence of blood Type A 42%
prevalence of blood Type B 10%
prevalence of blood Type AB 6%
prevalence of blood Type O 42%
blood type that the RBCs contain type A antigen & the plasma anti-B antibodies Type A
blood type that the RBCs contain type B antigen & the plasma contains anti-A antibodies Type B
blood type that the RBCs contain both type A & B antigens & the plasma contains neither anti-A nor anti-B antibodies Type AB
blood type that contains neither type A nor B antigens & the plasma contains both anti-A & anti-B antibodies Type O
universal donor (blood) O negative
universal recipient (blood) AB positive
about __% of the general population are Rh-positive 82%
The term Rh is used because this important blood cell antigen was first discovered in the blood of _________ Rhesus monkeys
another name for "red blood cells" erythrocytes
function of red blood cells transport oxygen & carbon dioxide
number of RBCs in a cubic millimeter of blood 4-6 million
number of WBCs in a cubic millimeter of blood 4,800-11,000
function of neutrophils destroy bacteria by phagocytosis
number of neutrophils in a cubic millimeter of blood 3,000-7,000
function of eosinophils turn off allergic responses & kill parasites
number of eosinophils in a cubic millimeter of blood 100-400
function of basophils release histamine & other mediators of inflammation
number of basophils in a cubic millimeter of blood 20-50
function of lymphocytes mount immune system response by directly attacking cells (T cells) or via antibodies (B cells)
number of lymphocytes in a cubic millimeter of blood 1,500-3,000
function of monocytes phagocytosis; develop into macrophages in tissues
number of monocytes in a cubic millimeter of blood 100-700
function of platelets seal small tears in blood vessels; blood clotting
number of platelets in a cubic millimeter of blood 150,000-500,000
Created by: leahmurphy