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chapter 27

TermDefinition
Third reich The third great empire established by Adolf Hitler in the 1930's
Reichstag fire Excuse Hitler used to blame the communists in order to start attack on communists
Great Depression A world wide economic struggle from 1929-1933, unique in its severity and duration and with slow and uneven recovery.
Night of long knives Purge of Nazi leaders by Adolf Hitler. Fearing that the paramilitary SA had become too powerful, Hitler ordered his elite SS guards to murder the organization's leader.
S.S. German military force
Heinrich Himmler German Nazi who was chief of the SS and the Gestapo and who oversaw the genocide of six million Jews (1900-1945)
Lebensraum Hitlers expansionist theory based on a drive to find "living space" for the German people
Gestapo The official secret police of Nazi Germany and German-occupied Europe.
Hitler Youth An organization established in 1933 to train German boys according to the ideas and principles of the Nazi Party.
Nuremberg Laws were anti-Jewish statutes enacted by Germany on September 15, 1935.
Kristallnacht a Nazi pogrom throughout Germany and Austria on the night of November 9–10, 1938, during which Jews were killed and their property destroyed.
Holocaust,"Final Solution" A term applied by Nazis to the genocide of European Jews during World War II.
Weimar Republic The German republic that existed from 1919 to Hitlers accession to power in 1933.
Nazism A set of political beliefs associated with the Nazi party of Germany from 1920 up to 1945
Collectivization was enforced under Stalin between 1928 and 1940. The goal of this policy was to consolidate individual land and labour into collective farms
Five-year plans A series of nationwide economic descisions in the Soviet Union
Kulaks A category of affluent farmers
purges an abrupt or violent removal of a group of people from an organization or place.
Benito Mussolini, Il Duce Italian Politician which was also Prime Minister (1922-1943) who lead the National Fascist Party.
Fascist Party Lead by Mussolini, declared war on socialism because it opposed nationalism.
"Black Shirts" Private Fascist group lead by Mussolini which wore a distinctive uniform color and wrecked anything that had to do with socialism like newspapers and union halls.
March on Rome March led by Benito Mussolini as propaganda for popularity which led to him taking power from King Victor Emmanuel II.
Aryan race a racial grouping commonly used in the period of the late 19th century to the mid 20th century to describe peoples of European and Western Asian heritage
National Socialist German Workers Party (NAZI) a political party in Germany active between 1920 and 1945 that practised Nazism
S.A ("Brown Shirts") the original paramilitary wing of the Nazi Party
Beer Hall Putsch a failed coup attempt by the Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler — along with Generalquartiermeister Erich Ludendorff and other Kampfbund leaders — to seize power in Munich, Bavaria, during 8–9 November 1923.
Mein Kampf, 1923 an autobiographical manifesto by Nazi leader Adolf Hitler, in which he outlines his political ideology and future plans for Germany.
show trial A judicial trial held in public with the intention of influencing or satisfying public opinion, rather than of ensuring justice.
totalitarianism A radical dictatorship that exercises total claims over the beliefs and behavior of its citizens by taking control of the economic, social,intellectual, and cultural aspects of society
fascism A movement characterized by extreme expansionist, nationalism, anti-socialism, a dynamic and violent leader, and glorification of the military and war
Vladimir Lenin Founder of the Russian Communist Party, leader of the Bolshevik Revolution and architect and first head of the Soviet state.
New Economic Policy (NEP) Implemented in 1921 to re-establish limited economic freedom in an attempt to rebuild agriculture and industry.
Joseph Stalin Communist who came to power in Russia in 1927, began five year plan a year later.
"socialism in one country" Belief that Russia should strengthen itself, put forth and adopted as state policy by Stalin.
Leon Trotsky Marxist revolutionary and supporter of Lenin, had relations with the Bolsheviks.
Created by: birmingham