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Chapter 26

AP Euro - The West and the World

Old Imperialism Occurred between the 16th and the 18th centuries. European powers did not usually acquire territory in Africa and Asia but rather built a series of trading stations. The New World was the exception.
New Imperialism Began in 1880's in Africa; earlier in Asia. In 1800 Europeans controlled about 7% of the world's territory; by 1914, they controlled 84%. Britain's control of Egypt in the 1880's became the model for the "___ _______".
Dr David Livingston First white man to do humanitarian and religious work in south and central Africa.
H.M. Stanley Found Livingston(whom westerners thought to be dead) and his newspaper reports created European interest in Africa; He sought aid of king of Belgium to dominate the Congo region.
Social Darwinism, “survival of the fittest” Ideology rationalized the conquest of weak countries by stronger more civilized ones.
White Man's Burden Racist and patronizing view that preached that the "superior" Westerners had an obligation to bring their culture to "uncivilized" people in other parts of the world.
Rudyard Kipling Coined the phrase "White Man's Burden" in his poem by the same name.
Scramble for Africa In 1880, Europeans controlled 10% of Africa; by 1914 controlled all except Liberia and Ethiopia.
Belgian Congo This term refers to the time period where Belgium had made Congo one of their colonies.
Leopold II Keen on establishing Belgium as an imperial power, he led the first European efforts to develop the Congo River basin, making possible the formation in 1885 of the Congo Free State, annexed in 1908 as the Belgian Congo...
Egypt, protectorate In 1883, Britain declared _____ a ________ setting the stage for similar practices by other European powers.
Berlin Conference 1884-85 Established the "rules " for conquest of Africa. No imperial power could claim a territory in Africa unless it effectively controlled that territory. Sought to prevent international conflicts between European nations over the issue of imperialism.
Sudan After taking control of Egypt Britain pushed southward to the ___.
Battle of Omdurman 1898 - decisive military engagement in which Anglo-Egyptian forces, under Major General Sir Herbert Kitchener defeated the forces of the Mahdist leader ʿAbd Allāh and thereby won Sudanese territory that the Mahdists had dominated since 1881.
General Horatio H. Kitchener In the Battle of Omdurman, he defeated Sudanese tribesman and killed 11,000(with machine guns) while only 28 Britons died.
Fashoda Incident 1898 France and Britain nearly went to war over Sudan. France backed down(partly because it was in the midst of the Dreyfus affair),
Cecil Rhodes Prime minister of Cape Colony in South Africa.
Cape Colony British colony established in 1806 in what is now South Africa. With the formation of the Union of South Africa (1910), the colony became the province of the Cape of Good Hope (also called Cape Province).
Boer War war fought from Oct. 11, 1899, to May 31, 1902, between Great Britain and the two Boer (Afrikaner) republics—the South African Republic (Transvaal) and the Orange Free State—resulting in British victory.
Kruger Telegram 1902: Kaiser Wilhelm II, dispatched telegram to Boers congratulating them on defeating British invaders without need of German assistance.
Algeria Since 1830, the French controlled Algeria in North Africa. The attack on French shipping by Barbary pirates was used as a pretext for conquest. Algeria remained under French control until the early 1960's.
Ethiopia Italy became the 1st European country to suffer a defeat by Africans. So Mussolini sought to rectify this defeat by conquering ____ in 1935.
Opium Wars Britain began selling opium to China(They had sold a lot of opium).This threatened China’s balance of trade. So China threw out opium into the sea. This didn't sit with Britain. Britain occupied coastal cities and China surrendered.
Treaty of Nanking 1842 Gave Hong Kong to Britain(Until 1997) Four "treaty ports" were opened to British trade including Canton and Shanghai. British residents in China were granted extraterritoriality and were thus immune from Chinese law.
“spheres of influence” By the late 19th century, much of eastern China had become subject to domination by Britain, France, Russia, Japan and Germany.
Taiping Rebellion 1850 Primarily caused by differing Chinese factions: rebels opposed the Manchus. As many as 20 million people perished. Manchus defeated the rebellion after 14 years with the help of the British military.
Sino-Japanese War (1894-95) conflict between Japan and China that marked the emergence of Japan as a major world power and demonstrated the weakness of the Chinese empire. The war grew out of conflict between the two countries for supremacy in Korea.
British East India Company After the 7 Year's War(1756-1763)___ ____ ____ _____ was given control of India and was directly accountable to Parliament.
Robert Clive He captured military posts in Madras and England ousted France from India.
Sepoy Mutiny, 1857-58 Insurrection of Hindu and Muslim soldiers in British Army spread in northern and central India before it was crushed. Result: After 1858, India was ruled by British Parliament in London and administered by a tiny, all-white civil service in India.
Indian National Congress Formed in 1885 Purpose: Britain trained Indians to run India along British lines. Educated Indians India became independent in 1946(just after WWII)
Indochina (Modern-day Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos) Became a protectorate in 1880's and 1890's
Boxer Rebellion 1900: Patriot uprising by Chinese nationalists against Western domination.
Russo-Japanese War 1904: Russia and Japan both had designs on Manchuria and Korea. Japan usually won the major battles on land.
Treaty of Portsmouth Mediated by U.S. president Theodore Roosevelt, ended the war with Japan winning major concessions(a preferred position in Manchuria, protectorate in Korea, half of Sakhalin Island. )
Karl Marx, Das Kapital 1867 Claimed that the bourgeoisie needed constantly expanding markets to increase profits; this would lead to conquest.
J.A. Hobson. Most prominent of the anti-imperialism theorists. Stated that imperialist powers needed colonies in order to provide new markets for domestic European goods. Thx to him and co., Anti-Imperialism grew in Europe.
Created by: Jrod42