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A&P Exam 2

Chapter 5: The Integumentary System

Integumentary System Skin
Parts of the integument cutaneous (skin) & accessory structures
Size of the integument largest organ system; 16% body weight
Parts of cutaneous membrane Outer epidermis and inner dermis
Outer dermis superficial epithelium (epithelial tissues)
inner dermis connective tissues
Accessory structures to integument originate in the dermis and extend through epidermis; hair, nails, and multicellular exocrine glands
Connections to integument Circulatory system and nervous system
Circulatory system blood vessels
nervous system sensory receptors for pain, touch, and temperature
Subcutaneous layer supeficial fascia or hypodermis; loose connective tissue, below the dermis
Functions of skin 1) protects underlying tissues and organs 2) excretes salts, water, and organic wastes (glands) 3)maintains body temperature (insulation and evaporation) 4) Synthesizes vitamin D 5)stores lipids 6) detects touch, pressure, pain, and temparature
Epidermis Avascular stratified squamous epithelium; nutrients and oxygen diffuse from capillaries in the dermis
Keratinocytes most abundant cells in the epidermis
Thick Skin has 5 layers of keratinocytes
Think Skin has 4 layers of keratinocytes
Layers of Epidermis stratum germinativum > stratum spinosum > stratum granulosum > stratum lucidum > stratum corneum
Basal lamina base of skin
Characteristics of stratum germinativum many stem cells (basal cells), attached to basal lamina by hemodemosomes, forms bond between epidermis and dermis
Structures of stratum germinativum Epidermal ridges (fingerprints) and dermal papillae (incrase surface area for grip)
Merkel cells cells of stratum germinativum, found in hairless skin, respond to touch
Melanocytes cells of stratum germinativum, contain melanin
characteristics of Stratum Spinosum spiny layer, 8-10 layers of keratinocytes bound by desmosomes, are spiny because the cells shrink until cytoskeletons stick out
Cells of stratum spinosum continue to divide increasing thickness of skin, contain kangerhans cells (active in immune)
Characteristics of Stratum Granulosum grainy layer
Keratin produced by stratum granulosum; tough, fibrous protein; makes up hair and nails
Keratohyalin produced by stratum granulosum; dense granules, cross-link keratin fibers
Cells of stratum granulosum produce protein fibers, dehydrate and die, create tightly interlocked layer of keratin surrounded by keratohyalin
Stratum Lucidum clear layer; only in thick skin
cells of stratum lucidum flat, dense, filled with keratin
stratum corneum horn layer bc its is what horns are made of; 15-30 layers of keratinized cells; water resistant; shed and replaced every 2 weeks
Keratinization formation of a lyer of dead, protective cells filled with keratin; occurs everywhere but eyes
Skin Life Cycle 15-30 days to move from stratum germinosum to stratum corneum
Insensible perspiration interstitial fluid lost by evaporation through the stratum corneum
Sensible perspiration water excreted by sweat glands
Causes of dehydration water loss through skin due to damage to stratum corneum (burns and blisters) and saltwater
Causes of hydration freshwater (hypotonic)-causes stretching and wrinkling skin
Skin color depends on blood circulation, carotene, and melanin
Melanin yellow-brown or black pigment, produced by melanocytes in stratum germinativum, stored in vesicles (melanosomes), transferred ti jeratubicytes
Carotene orange-yellow, accumulates in epidermal cells and fatty tissue of dermis; can be converted to vitamin A
Function of Melanocytes protects skin from sun damage, produces skin color (depends on melanin production NOT number of melanocytes)
UV radiation causes DNA mutations and burns which lead to cancer and wrinkles
How oxygenated red blood cells contribute to skin color blood vessels dilate from heat, skin reddens/ blood flow decreases, skin pales
Cyanosis bluish skin tint caused by severe reduction in blood flow or oxygenation
Jaundice buildup of bile produced by liver; yellow color
Addison's disease disease of the pituitary gland; skin darkening
Vitiligo loss of melanocyte, loss of color (black to white)
Nevus a mole
Hemangioma capillary malformation (buildup)-birthmarks
Angle's Kiss birthmark located on forehead and eyelids, usually disappear by age 2
stork bite birthmark on the back of the neck and can last into adulthood
infantile hemangioma most common birthmark; visible in first 2 weeks and grow until 6-9 months and lose color
port-wine stain birthmark also called nevus flammeus, flat, pink, red, or purple mark on face, arm, or leg that continues to grow with the child
Vitamin D also called cholecalciferol and produced by epidermal cells in the presence of UV radiation, converted to calitriol by liver and kidneys to aid absorption of calcium and phosphorus. Insufficient vitamin D causes rickets
EGF (Epidermal Growth Factor) powerful peptide growth factor produced by glands (salivary and duodenum) and use to grow skin grafts.
Functions of Epidermal growth factor promote division of germinative cells, accelerate keratin production, stimulate epidermal repair, and stimulate glandular secretion
Functions of the Dermis Anchors epidermal accessory structures (hair follicles, sweat glands), and has 2 components: outer papillary layer and deep reticular layer
The Reticular Layer Dense irregular tissue; contains larger blood bessels, lymph vessels, and nerve fibers; contains collagen and elastic fibers; contains connective tissue proper
Papillary Layer consists of areolar tissue; smaller capillaries, lymphatics, and sensory neurons; has dermal papillae projecting between epidermal ridge
Dermatitis inflammation of the papillary layer; caused by infection, radiation, mechanical irriation, or chemical; itching or pain; strong, due to collagen fibers; elastic due to elastic fibers; flexible (skin turgor)
Skin Damage characterized by sagging and wrinkles caused by dehydration, age, hormonal changes, or UV exposure.
Stretch Marks thickened tissue resulting from thickened tissue resulting from excessive stretching of skin from pregnancy or weight gain
Lines of Cleavage Collagen and elastic fibers in the dermis are arranged in parallel bundles and resist force in a specific direction
Pattern of Lines of Cleavage a parallel cut remains shut, heals well; a cut across pulls open and scars
Arteries n Dermis Cutaneous plexus: a network of arteries along the reticular layer; Papillary plexus: capillary network from small arteries in papillary layer
Veins in Dermis Venous plexus: capillary return deep to the papillary plexus; Contusion: damage to blood vessels resulting in bruises
Hypodermis (subcutaneous layer) lies below integument; stabilizes skin; allows separate movement; made of elastic areolar and adipose tissue; connected to reticular layer by connective tissue fibers; has few capillaries and no organs
Adipose tissue (fat) where it is distributed in the body is determined by hormones
Hair wrapped in a dense connective-tissue-sheath; base is surrounded by sensory nerves (root hair plexus)
Arrector pili involuntary smooth muscle
Hair Growth hair papilla contains capillaries and nerves; hair bulb produces hair matrix
Hair Matrix layer of dividing basal cells; produce hair structure; push hair up and out of skin
Layers of the Hair medulla: central core; cortex: middle layer; cuticle: surface layer
Keratin Soft keratin inside, hard keratin outside
internal root sheath inner layer of hair follicle; contacts cuticle in lower hair root
external root sheath extends from skin surface to hair matrix
glassy membrane dense connective-tissue sheath that contacts connective tissues of dermis
Club hair non growing hair attached to inactive follicle
Lanugo hair fetal hair follicles
vellus hairs soft, fine, cover body surface
terminal hairs heavy, pigmented; head, eyebrows, etc.
Exocrine Glands Sebaceous and sweat glands
Sebaceous Glands (oil glands) simple branched alveolar glands (associated with hair follicles) and sebaceous follicles
Sebaceous follicles discharge directly onto skin surface; holocrine glands; secrete sebum; contains lipids, lubricates and protects epidermis, and inhibits bacteria
Sweat glands Apocrine and Merocrine
Aprocrine glands found in armpits, nipples, and groin. assocaited with hair follicles; produce sticky, cloudy secretions; cause odors
Merocrine Glands widely distributed especially on palms and soles, cools skin, flushes microorganism and chemicals
Ceruminous glands protect eardrum and produces earwax
Nails Made of dead cells, produced in a deep epidermal fold near the bone called the nail root
Classification of burns 1st degree- damage to epidermis; 2nd degree- damage down to dermis; 3rd degree- damage to entire thickness of skin
Created by: Asund6



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