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Anatomy - Endocrine

What does the endocrine system do? Secrete hormones into body fluids in order to communicate with cells
Type of gland that secretes products into ducts (out of body) exocrine
Type of gland that secretes products into body fluids to affect target cells (into body) endocrine
Tissues that hormones affect target tissue
Lipid-soluble and can pass through cell membranes. Their receptors are located in the target cell's nucleus. Steroid Hormone
Combine with receptors in target cell membranes Nonsteroid Hormone
Locally-produced lipids that affect the organ in which they are produced Prostaglandins
Controls secretions of the anterior pituitary Release of tropic hormones from the hypothalamus
Control hormonal secretions negative feedback system
Where is the pituitary gland located? Base of the brain
The pituitary gland is divided into two _____ lobes
Control the secretions of the anterior pituitary Releasing hormones from the hypothalamus
Carry secretions from the hypothalamus hypophysal portal veins
The posterior pituitary releases hormones in response to _________ ____________ from the hypothalamus nerve impulses
Stimulates body cells to grow and reproduce (released by anterior pituitary) Growth Hormone
Promotes milk production following the birth of an infant (released by anterior pituitary) Prolactin
Controls the secretion of hormones from the thyroid gland Thyroid-stimulating hormone
Controls the secretion of hormones from the adrenal cortex Adrenocorticotropic hormone
Gonadotropins affecting the male and female gonads Follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone
Which hormones are produced in the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary? antidiuretic and oxytocin
Causes the kidneys to conserve water antidiuretic hormone
Plays a role in childbirth by contracting muscles in the uterine wall and in milk-letdown by forcing milk int ducts from the milk glands Oxytocin
Located below the larynx and consists of two broad lobes connected by an isthmus. Thyroid Gland
The thyroid gland consists of secretory parts called ________ filled with hormone-storing colloid follicles
Iodine containing hormones that regulate metabolism t4 and t3
Extrafollicular cells of the thyroid secrete ________ which lowers blood levels of calcium and phosphate ions when they are too high calcitonin
How many parathyroid glands are they, and where are they found? Four / on the posterior of the thyroid
Consist of tightly packed secretory glands covered by a thin capsule of connective tissue parathyroid gland
Increases blood calcium ion concentration and decreases phosphate ion concentration Parathyroid Hormone
How does PTH regulate calcium levels? Stimulates bone resorption by osteoclasts and influences the kidneys to conserve calcium and causes increased absorption of calcium in the intestines
Pyramid shaped glands enclosed in a layer of fat that sit on top of the kidneys adrenal glands
Made up of modified postganglionic neurons that are connected to the sympathetic nervous system Adrenal medulla
The hormones secreted are the same as ____________ of this system but are called hormones because they are secreted into the blood stream neurotransmitters
Released during times of stress and for "fight or flight" Epinephrine and norepinephrine
Effects of epinephrine and norepinephrine increased heart rate, breathing rate, elevated blood pressure and slow digestion
The ____________ ___________ makes up most of the adrenal glands and consists of epithelial cells adrenal cortex
The adrenal cortex produces over _____ different steroids 30
Mineralocorticoid that causes the kidneys to conserve sodium ions and thus water, and to excrete potassium ions Aldosterone
A glucocorticoid that influences the metabolism of glucose, protein, and fat in response to conditions that stress the body Cortisol
Supplement hormones released by the gonads and may stimulate early development of reproductive organs Adrenal sex hormones
Elongated organ posterior to the stomach that secretes hormones as an endocrine gland, and digestive juices to the digestive tract as an exocrine gland Pancreas
Endocrine portion of the pancreas islets of Langerhans
cells in the islets of Langerhans that secrete glucagon alpha cells
cells in the islets of Langerhans that secrete insulin beta cells
Increases the blood levels of glucose by stimulating the breakdown of glycogen and the conversion of noncarbohydrates into glucose Glucagon
Decreases blood levels of glucose by stimulating the liver to form glycogen, increasing protein synthesis, and stimulating adipose cells to store fat. Insulin
Secretes melatonin and is located near the upper portion of the thalamus pineal gland
Regulates circadian rhythms of the body melatonin
Secretes thymosins and is located between the lungs under the sternum Thymus gland
Affects the production and differentiation of T lymphocytes that are important to immunity Thymosins
The ovaries produce... estrogen and progesterone
The placenta produces... estrogen, progesterone, and a gonadotropin
The testes produce.... testosterone
Reproductive glands include... ovaries, testes, and placenta
Secrete hormones associated with the processes of digestion Digestive glands
The heart secretes ____________ which affects sodium atrial natriuretic peptide
The kidney secretes __________ for blood cell production erythropoietin
Factors that serve as stressors to the body produce stress and threaten _________ homeostasis
Stress can be _________ or ______________ physical or psychological
Threatens the survival of tissues (such as extreme cold, prolonged exercise, or infections) Physical stress
Results from real or perceived dangers, and includes feelings of anger, depression, fear, and grief Psychological stress
The hypothalamus controls the ___________ ______________ __________ which involves increased sympathetic activity and increased secretion of cortisol, glucagon, growth hormone, and antideuretic hormone general stress syndrome
Created by: DarkPeriwinkle



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