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Chapter 8

Chapter 8 Glossary

Allograft Transplanting tissue obtained from a donor of the same species.
Ankylosis Stiffening of the joint
Ankylosing Spondylitis A disease causing the bones of the spine to grow together
Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) A ligament located in the center of the knee controlling rotation and forward movement of the tibia (shin bone)
Arthritis Inflammation of a joint; usually accompanied by pain, swelling, and sometimes changes in structure.
Arthrogram X-ray to view bone structures, follows an injection of contrast fluid in the joint area
Arthroscopy Minimally-invasive, diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic procedure used for conditions of a joint
Arthropathy Pathology or abnormality of a joint and arthritic conditions
Autograft Transplanting tissue into a new position in or on the body of the same individual
Bursa Fluid-filled sac located between a bone and a tendon or muscle
Burstitis Swelling and irritation of the bursa
Bunion Inflammation and deformity in the joint of the big toe.
Capsulitis Inflammation of the tissues; also called synovitis.
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Median Nerve is compressed as it passes through the carpel tunnel (a confined space) in the wrist
Cartilage Smooth material covering bone ends of a joint to cushion bones; allows the joint to move easily
Cubital Tunnel A tunnel of muscle, ligament, and bone on the inside of the elbow
Dislocation Occurs when extreme force is put on ligament causing two bone ends to separate
Dorsopathies Disorders affecting the spinal column
Electromyogram (EMG) A test to evaluate nerve and muscle function
Enesthopathy Disease occurring at the site of attachment of a ligament or muscle tendons to bones or joint capsules
Femur Thigh Bone
Fibromyalgia (Fibrositis) Chronic, widespread pain in muscles and soft tissues surrounding the joints throughout the body
Fracture A break in a bone
Gout Result of a defect in body chemistry (such as uric acid in the joints fluid); this painful condition most often attacks small joints
Hammertoe Bent deformity in the middle toe joint
Heel Spur Bone growth on the heel bone
Humerus Bone of the upper arm
Inflammation Normal reaction to injury or disease, results in swelling, pain, and stiffness
Joint Place where the ends of two or more bones meet
Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA) Form of Arthritis on children ages 16 or younger causing inflammation and stiffness of joints
Lateral Collateral Ligament (LCL) Ligament giving stability to the outer knee
Lateral Epicondylitis (Tennis Elbow) Caused by damage to tendons bending the wrist backward away from the palm
Ligaments White, shiny, flexible band of fibrous tissue binding joints together and connecting bones and cartilage
Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) Ligament giving stability to the inner knee
Medial Epicondylitis Condition in the elbow caused by damage to the tendons bending the wrist toward the palm
Meniscus Cresent-shaped disc of connective tissue between the bones of the knee acting as a shock absorber to cushion the lower part of the leg
Morton's Neuroma Pinched nerve usually causing pain between the third and fourth toes
Musculoskeletal System Complex system involving the body's muscles and skeleton, including the joints, ligaments, tendons, and nerves
Myelogram Injection of a dye or contrast material into the spinal canal; a specific X-ray study also allowing careful evaluation of the spinal canal and nerve roots
Nursemaids elbow Partial dislocation of the elbow or proximal radial head common in small children.
Open Reduction Internal Fixation (ORIF) The insertion of metal rods, wires, pins, nails, or plates are placed to surgically repair fractured bones, usually through an incision over the fracture site
Osteoarthritis Wear and tear causing inflammation of the joint, resulting in swelling, pain, and stiffness
Osteomyeltis An inflammation of the bone and/or bone marrow caused by infection
Osteoporosis Porous bone developing when bone no longer is replaced as quickly as it is removed.
Pathologic Fracture Bone fracture caused by disease, not accident or injury
Patella Kneecap
Plantar Fascia Long band of connecting tissue running from the heel to the ball of the foot
Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL) Ligament located in the back of the knee controlling backward movement of the tibia (shin bone)
Prosthesis Artificial body part replacement
Radius Shorter of the two bones in the forearm
Rheumatoid Arthritis Inflammatory disease involving the lining of the joints (synovium)
Scleroderma Disease of the body's connective tissue causing thickening and hardening of the skin
Scoliosis Lateral, or sideways, curvature and rotation of vertebrae
Soft Tissues Ligaments, tendons, and muscles of the musculoskeletal system
Spondylosis Osteoarthritis of the spine
Spondylitis Inflammation of the spine
Spinal Stenosis Narrowing of the spinal canal
Sprain Partial or complete tear of the ligament
Strain Partial or complete tear of a muscle or a tendon
Stress Fracture Bone injury caused by overuse
Synovial Fluid Clear fluid released by the synovial membrane, acts as a lubricant for joints and tendons
Tendon Tough cords of tissue that connect muscles to bones
Tendonitis Inflammation in a tendon or the tendon covering
Tibia Shin bone or larger bone of the lower leg
Trigger Finger Irritation of the digital sheath that surrounds the flexor tendons of the finger
Ulnar Bone Longer of the two bones in the forearm
Created by: BBracha