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Chapter 25

AP Euro - Age of Realpolitik & Mass Politics

Crimean War (1853-56) Failure of the Concert of Europe Its credibility was undermined by failure of the Great Powers to cooperate during revolutions of 1848-49.
Florence Nightingale (1820-1910) a. British nurse who became a pioneer in modern nursing b. During the Crimean War more men died of disease rather than by combat wounds
Second French Republic (1848-1852) 1. Constitution: unicameral legislature (National Assembly); strong executive power; popularly elected president of the Republic 2. Universal male suffrage 3. President Louis Napoleon:
Second French Empire Emperor Napoleon III: took control of gov’t in coup d’etat and became emperor the following year Economic reforms resulted in a healthy economy Foreign policy struggles resulted in strong criticism of Napoleon III and demonstrated his weakness as ruler
Syllabus of Errors, Returned control of secondary education to the government (instead of the Catholic Church) In response, Pope Pius IX issued this (1864), condemning liberalism
1864 Sardinia-Piedmont After collapse of revolutions of 1848-49, unification movement in Italy shifted to _____-_____ under King Victor Emmanuel, Count Cavour and Garibaldi.
King Victor Emmanuel King of Sardinia from 1849 until, on 17 March 1861, he assumed the title King of Italy to become the first king of a united Italy since the 6th century, a title he held until his death in 1878.
Count Cavour (1810-1861) of Sardinia-Piedmont led the struggle for Italian unification 1. Served as King Victor Emmanuel’s prime minister between 1852 and 1861  Essentially a moderate nationalist and aristocratic liberal
“Il Risorgimento” a newspaper arguing Sardinia should be the foundation of a new unified Italy.
Plombiérès, 1859 (1859)  Cavour gained a promise from Napoleon III that France would support a Sardinian war with Austria for the creation of a northern Italian kingdom (controlled by Sardinia)
Giuseppe Garibaldi, Red Shirts (1807-1882) liberated southern Italy and Sicily. landed in Sicily and extended the nationalist activity to the south
“Humiliation of Olmutz” 1849, Austria had blocked the attempt of Frederick William IV of Prussia to unify Germany “from above”
Zollverein (German customs union), 1734: biggest source of tension between Prussia and Austria.  Excluded Austria; Austria thus tried unsuccessfully to destroy it
Otto von Bismarck led the drive for a Prussian-based Hohenzollern Germany 1. Junker background; obsessed with power Served as the Chancellor and was the mastermind behind the government
“gap theory” gained Bismarck's favor with the king a. Army Bill Crisis created stalemate between king & legislature over reforms of the army. b. Bismarck insisted Prussian constitution contained a “gap”: did not mention what was to be done if a stalemate developed.
“blood and iron” “The great questions of the day will not be decided by speeches and resolutions—that was the blunder of 1848 and 1849—but by ______ __ ____.”
Prussian-Danish War, 1863 1863 Germany & Austria defeated Denmark and took control of the provinces of Schleswig and Holstein. The provinces were jointly administered by Prussia and Austria but conflicts over jurisdiction would lead to a major war between Prussia and Austria
Austro-Prussian War, Bismarck sought a localized war Prussia’s use of railroads to mass troops and use of the breech-loading rifle proved superior to Austria’s military efforts. Prussia’s victory unified much of Germany without Austria
1866 Reichstag The parliament consisted of two houses that shared power equally.
Franco-Prussian War, Ems Dispatch Bismarck used the war with France to bring 4 remaining southern German states into the North German Confederation Paris fell to the Germans in January, 1871: Napoleon III was captured.
1870-71 Ems Dispatch Bismarck sought to provoke a war with France. Bismarck boasted that a French diplomat had been kicked out of Germany after asking William I not to interfere with the succession to the Spanish throne.
Austro-Hungarian Empire The Hungarians and Czechs continued to demand self-determination, or at the very least, for a semiautonomous state. Austria’s defeat by Germany in 1866 weakened its grip on power and forced it to establish the so-called dual monarchy.
Ausgleich, 1867 Officially created the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Hungarians now had their own assembly, cabinet, and administrative system, and would support and participate with Austria in the Imperial army and in the Imperial gov’t.
Magyars Austria assimilated the Hungarians (______) and nullified them as a primary opposition group
German Empire The ____ ______was proclaimed on January 18, 1871 (Germany now the most powerful nation in Europe)
Kaiser Wilhelm I William I became Emperor of Germany. Reigned 1871-1888 had the ultimate power in Germany.
Bundestag The lower house (_______) had representatives elected by universal male suffrage
Bundesrat The upper house (______) included representatives from each state
Junkers Conservatives represented the _____ of Prussia
Kulturkampf "struggle for civilization" Bismarck sought to limit the influence of the Catholic Party in light of Pope Pius IX's declaration in 1870 of papal infallibility.
Catholic Center Party Approved Bismarck's policy of centralization and promoted the political concept of Particularism which advocated regional priorities.
Social Democratic Party (S.P.D.) Was Marxist and advocated sweeping social change.
Wilhelm II Reigne 1888 to 1918 Opposed Bismarck's move to renew efforts to outlaw the S.P.D To gain support of workers, he forced Bismarck to resign. By 1912, the S.P.D became the largest party in the Reichstag
Third French Republic Established in 1875. Largely dominated by the bourgeoisie A constitution provided for a republic
Paris Commune 1870-71 A radical communist government lay siege to Paris. From March to May 1871, they fought a bloody struggle with the troops of the National Assembly.
Adolphe Thiers Chief executive of the new National Assembly.
Jules Ferry established secular education and reform: expanded tax-supported public schools and compulsory education.
Dreyfus Affair 1894: Most serious threat to the republic. Military falsely charged Captain Alfred Dreyfus a Jew, with supplying secrets to the Germans
Emile Zola, “J’accuse!” (the realist author) took up Dreyfus' case and condemned the military. Article defending Dreyfus.____
Benjamin Disraeli Led the Conservative Party from 1804-1881.
William Gladstone Led the Whig Party(1809-1898) and transformed it into the Liberal Party.
Reform Bill of 1867, “leap in the dark” In order to appeal to the working people. Redistributed seats to provide more equitable representation in the House of Commons. Almost all men over 21 who resided in urban centers were granted the right to vote.
Reform Act of 1884 Granted suffrage to adult males in the counties on the same basis as in the boroughs
Fabian Society (1883)among the most significant: advanced a form a revisionist Marxism.
Parliament Act of 1911 Most significant political reform during Liberal party rule. Eliminated powers of House of Lords; House of Commons now the center of national power. Life-span of Parliament reduced from 7 to 5 years,
Emmeline Pankhurst Led militant suffragettes. Infuriated that Parliament would not give females the vote, even though women in Finland gained this right in 1906.
Representation of the People Act, 1918 1918: As a result of women's critical contributions to the war effort during World War I, Parliament gave females over 30 the right to vote.
“Irish Question” was a phrase used mainly by members of the British ruling classes from the early 19th century until the 1920s. It was used to describe Irish nationalism and the calls for Irish independence.
Young Ireland 1848 echoed nationalistic movements on the continent.
Irish Home Rule the demand that the governance of Ireland be returned from Westminster to a domestic parliament in Ireland.
Ulster (Protestant counties in northern Ireland) Opposed Irish Home Rule as they started to enjoy remarkable economic growth from the mid-1890's.
Easter Rebellion 1916, for Independence, was crushed by British troops.
“Eastern Question” As the Ottoman Empire - the "Sick Man of Europe"- receded in southeastern Europe a constant state of crisis existed in the Balkans: Who would control region?
“Sick Man of Europe” The Ottoman Empire - ______
Congress of Berlin, 1878 Russia gained little from the conference despite defeating the Turks in the war. One Provision was recognition of Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro as independent states.
Socialist Revisionism As workers gained the right to vote and to participate politically in the nation-state, their attention focused more on elections than on revolutions.
Alexander II 1855-1881 Perhaps the greatest Czar since Catherine the Great Believed serfdom had retarded Russia's modernization.
Emancipation Act, 1861 Alexander believed ending serfdom was a key to Russia's modernization. Abolished serfdom: peasants no longer dependent on the lord; free to move and change occupations; could enter contracts and own property.
Mirs Most Russians lived in communes which were highly regulated
Zemstvos Established in 1864:assemblies that administered local areas.
Intelligentsia Hostile group of intellectuals who believed they should eventually take over society.
Count Sergei Witte Oversaw Russian industrialization in the 1890's. Aggressively courted western capital and advanced technology to build great factories.
Alexander III 1881-1894 Became the most reactionary czar of the 19th century. "Autocracy, Orthodoxy, and Russification" Encouraged anti-semitism
“Autocracy, Orthodoxy, Russification” principles that became the foundation of the state; how Alexander III wanted to run Russia.
pogroms violent attacks against Jews; resulted in severe persecution of Jews
Theodore Herzl, Zionism advocated a Jewish homeland in the Holy Land as a remedy to continued persecution of Jews in eastern & central Europe.
Nicholas II Russia's last czar; he witnessed the fall of Russia from great power to the entering into WWI and total collapse.
Russo-Japanese War russians had established a sphere of influence in Manchuria & now sought Korea; Russian fleet was destroyed by Japan; humiliated Russia
“Bloody Sunday” 200,000 workers & peasants marched peacefully to the winter palace asking czar for reforms; Nicholas II wasn't home, army opened fire & killed a lot
Revolution of 1905 result of discontent from Russian factory workers and peasants as well as an emerging nationalist sentiment among the empires minorities
Duma Assembly created that would serve as an advisory body to the Czar.
Grigorii Rasputin After 1911, czar's court increasingly dominated by mystic monk ____ ______ resulting in widespread doubts about the czar's ability to lead.
Created by: Jrod42